A grid of MARCS model atmospheres for late-type stars
1 Institut d’Astronomie et d’Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), CP 226, Boulevard du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium
2 Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, 34095 Montpellier, France
3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Space Physics, Uppsala University, Box 515, 751 20 Uppsala, Sweden
4 Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
5 Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Geological Museum, Øster Voldgade 5, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
Received: 13 February 2015
Accepted: 23 July 2016
S-type stars are late-type giants whose atmospheres are enriched in carbon and s-process elements because of either extrinsic pollution by a binary companion or intrinsic nucleosynthesis and dredge-up on the thermally-pulsing asymptotic giant branch. A grid of MARCS model atmospheres has been computed for S stars, covering the range 2700 ≤ Teff(K) ≤ 4000, 0.50 ≤ C/O ≤ 0.99, 0 ≤ log g ≤ 5, [Fe/H] = 0., −0.5 dex, and [s/Fe] = 0, 1, and 2 dex (where the latter quantity refers to the global overabundance of s-process elements). The MARCS models make use of a new ZrO line list. Synthetic spectra computed from these models are used to derive photometric indices in the Johnson and Geneva systems, as well as TiO and ZrO band strengths. A method is proposed to select the model best matching any given S star, a non-trivial operation since the grid contains more than 3500 models covering a five-dimensional parameter space. The method is based on the comparison between observed and synthetic photometric indices and spectral band strengths, and has been applied on a vast subsample of the Henize sample of S stars. Our results confirm the old claim by Piccirillo (1980, MNRAS, 190, 441) that ZrO bands in warm S stars (Teff>3200 K) are not caused by the C/O ratio being close to unity, as traditionally believed, but rather by some Zr overabundance. The TiO and ZrO band strengths, combined with V−K and J−K photometric indices, are used to select Teff, C/O, [Fe/H] and [s/Fe]. The Geneva U−B1 and B2−V1 indices (or any equivalent) are good at selecting the gravity. The defining spectral features of dwarf S stars are outlined, but none is found among the Henize S stars. More generally, it is found that, at Teff = 3200 K, a change of C/O from 0.5 to 0.99 has a strong impact on V−K (2 mag). Conversely, a range of 2 mag in V−K corresponds to a 200 K shift along the (Teff, V−K) relationship (for a fixed C/O value). Hence, the use of a (Teff, V−K) calibration established for M stars will yield large errors for S stars, so that a specific calibration must be used, as provided in the present paper. Using the atmospheric parameters derived by our method for the sample of Henize S stars, we show that the extrinsic-intrinsic dichotomy among S stars reveals itself very clearly as a bimodal distribution in the effective temperatures. Moreover, the increase of s-process element abundances with increasing C/O ratios and decreasing temperatures is apparent among intrinsic stars, confirming theoretical expectations.
Key words: stars: atmospheres / stars: fundamental parameters / stars: late-type / stars: AGB and post-AGB / stars: abundances / stars: general
Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla, Chile; program 58.E-0942), on the Swiss 70 cm telescope (La Silla, Chile) and on the Mercator telescope (La Palma, Spain).
The MARCS S star model atmospheres will be archived on the MARCS website: http://marcs.astro.uu.se
Full Tables 2 and 3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A10
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