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Fig. 4


Absorption height of high energy radiation for Earths and Super-Earths with total atmospheric thickness of S = 0.1 Rp. The solid curves show the penetration depth of radiation of different energy (hard X-rays/γ-rays βm = 0.01 → dark red; hard X-rays βm = 0.1 → orange; soft X-rays βm = 100 → yellow). The dashed gray line identifies the threshold height where the number density reaches 1015 cm-3. Below this threshold height, collisions play an important role in transferring heat to the lower atmosphere.

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