EDP Sciences
Open Access
Issue
A&A
Volume 600, April 2017
Article Number A12
Number of page(s) 16
Section Planets and planetary systems
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201628620
Published online 20 March 2017

© ESO, 2017

Licence Creative Commons
Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Introduction

Stellar occultations are the best opportunity to directly and accurately determine the size and shape of a solar system body remotely from Earth. They allow improvements of orbital elements and have the potential to discover previously unknown satellites (e.g. Timerson et al. 2013; Descamps et al. 2011), or even ring systems, as recently revealed for Centaur (10199) Chariklo (Braga-Ribas et al. 2014a). The shape of the light curve can reveal the presence of an atmosphere, and enable the study of its properties (e.g. Person et al. 2013). While observations of occultations only require basic photometric tools, the technical challenge is to acquire images at high cadence with little-to-no dead time between acquisitions, and with very precise timing information to measure disappearance and reappearance times of the occulted star with little uncertainty. Knowledge of the target’s apparent orbital velocity and length of the occultation allow for a direct calculation of its size at the location of the sampled plane or chord. Multiple observers distributed across the shadow path can sample the occulting object at different locations, which provides information on its shape.

Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are considered the most pristine objects in our solar system. Being left-overs from the very early stage of the accretion phase, estimates of their sizes, densities and albedos, as well as constraints on their composition can provide critical information on the evolution of the solar system. Given their large geocentric distance and very small angular diameter, the prediction of a TNO’s shadow path on the Earth’s surface during an occultation is difficult. Owing to the very long orbital periods of TNOs, only a very small fraction of their orbits has been observed since their discovery, leaving relatively large uncertainties in their orbital elements. Another issue for shadow path predictions are astrometric uncertainties of currently available star catalogs, which are inherited by orbit and ephemeris calculations for TNOs and which blur the true position of the occulted star. Besides random astrometric uncertainties that typically increase towards fainter stars, catalogs usually have zonal errors. Another dominating error that can shift a shadow path significantly is potential stellar duplicity, which usually cannot be excluded in advance. We also have no information on albedo variations on the TNO’s surface, which could cause a periodic shift of the center of light. All these error sources make predictions and successful observation campaigns for TNO occultations a difficult task (Bosh et al. 2016). To improve shadow path predictions, extensive astrometric observations with high precision of both the target star and the occulting body are usually conducted for many weeks in advance of an event. The first data release of the Gaia star catalog (Lindegren et al. 2016; Gaia Collaboration 2016) and all subsequent data releases1 up to the final Gaia catalog in 2022 are expected to improve the accuracy of occultation predictions significantly, since Gaia will offer the most accurate astrometry ever obtained. Gaia will also significantly contribute towards stellar duplicity measurements.

A number of occultation events covering at least 11 different TNOs (see e.g. Ortiz et al. 2014; Braga-Ribas et al. 2014b) have been successfully observed to date, not counting the well-studied Pluto system. However, most occultations by TNOs could only be observed at a single location, while the acquisition of multiple chords during an event has been extremely rare. Table 1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of occultations by TNOs (except Pluto) that have been published in peer-reviewed literature so far, covering only four objects to date. (50000) Quaoar (Braga-Ribas et al. 2013) is currently the best sampled TNO, having five unique chords (i.e. chords that are geographically sufficiently distant to each other to sample the occulting object at distinguishable locations) that were recorded during a single event (04 May 2011). In this dataset, the time resolution and accuracy of the two chords above the centerline have been low, resulting in large uncertainties of ingress and egress times and consequently in some ambiguity of the ellipse fit. (136472) Makemake (Ortiz et al. 2012) has been generally sampled with good time resolution, but three of the four unique chords were very close to each other and almost located at the centerline of the ellipse fit, while the fourth chord was located below the centerline, and no chord was located above, likewise resulting in ambiguity of the shadow geometry. For the remaining two objects, (136199) Eris and (55636) 2002 TX300, only two unique chords are available, which results in an under-determined ellipse fit. To our knowledge, multi-chord events were also recorded for the following objects, but have not been published in peer-reviewed literature so far: (208996) 2003 AZ84, (20000) Varuna and (84922) 2003 VS2.

Table 1

Multi-chord observations of stellar occultations by trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) published in peer-reviewed literature to date.

In this paper, we report results from the very first multi-chord observation of a stellar occultation by a TNO that is classified as a detached object according to the widely used definitions by Gladman et al. (2008). This term denotes a sub class of TNOs with perihelion distances so large that Neptune and the other giant planets have likely not perturbed their orbits in the past. In addition to being the first comprehensive study of an object of this dynamical class, the dataset presented in this paper is also extremely rare compared to previously achieved observations of occultations by TNOs: to our knowledge, it is only the second after (50000) Quaoar that provides a sufficient number of chords (at least three chords are required for an ellipse fit) that are well spaced (in the present case sampling the target simultaneously above, very close, and below the centerline by extremely favorably distributed, quasi symmetrically located observers). The size derived from the occultation measurements is used as an important new constraint for thermophysical modeling based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR) flux measurements. This combined analysis allows us to comprehensively characterize 2007 UK126.

2. Known properties of 2007 UK126 from literature

2007 UK126 was discovered at Palomar Observatory on 19 October 2007. According to the database of the Minor Planet Center (MPC)2, it has been identified subsequently on older images taken at Siding Spring Observatory and Palomar dating back to August 1982, which allowed improvements of orbit calculations (i = 23.34°, e = 0.49, a = 74.01 AU). Having an orbital period of 636.73 yr, the object is approaching perihelion (at a heliocentric distance of rH = 37.522 AU), which it will pass on 18 March 2046, based on current ephemeris data provided by the JPL Small-Body Database3. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest apparent magnitude of mV ≈ 19.13 mag (in V-band) during its entire orbit according to MPC estimates.

Photometric and spectroscopic data of 2007 UK126 were acquired with several instruments at ESO’s VLT in a coordinated campaign on 21 and 22 September 2008. Perna et al. (2010) report visible and infrared photometry (VRIJH) taken with VLT/FORS2 and VLT/ISAAC. They estimated the absolute magnitude (defined as the apparent magnitude at a distance of 1 AU both to the Sun and to the observer at zero phase angle) of 2007 UK126 in V-band as HV = 3.69 ± 0.04 mag. Their R-band measurement allows us to derive HR = 3.07 ± 0.04 mag. While these photometric measurement uncertainties ΔHphot result from noise in the data, they do not consider possible periodic magnitude variations Δm owing to the rotation of the body. To take these into account as well, Santos-Sanz et al. (2012) proposed an additional error term of . This is justified by assuming a sinusoidal light curve, where roughly 88% of its amplitude contains 68.3% of the function values. As the light curve amplitude was not measured back in 2012, a peak-to-peak amplitude of Δm = 0.2 mag was assumed, arguing that roughly 70% of a sample of TNO light curves studied by Duffard et al. (2009) showed less magnitude variations. Considering both independent error sources, the total measurement uncertainty becomes . This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of HV = 3.69 ± 0.10 mag and HR = 3.07 ± 0.10 mag.

Interestingly, Perna et al. (2010) note that 2007 UK126 was the only object in their study that they were unable to categorize into any of the four TNO taxonomic classes. By comparing color indices (BV, VR, VI, VJ, VH, VK) to those of the Sun, a TNO can be classified as BB (neutral, or “blue” in color), BR (intermediate “blue-red”), IR (moderately “red”) and RR (very “red”); details are given in Barucci et al. (2005) and Fulchignoni et al. (2008). While visible photometry provides classifications of 2007 UK126 both as IR or RR, infrared photometry allows classifications both as BB or BR. This could indicate that the current taxonomic scheme needs to be refined in the future. Fornasier et al. (2009) report visible spectroscopy of 2007 UK126 obtained with VLT/FORS2 (0.44–0.93 μm). The spectral continuum between 500–800 nm has a slope of (19.6 ± 0.7)% per 100 nm, which is considered moderately red and well within the slope range of various samples of the TNO population (see e.g. Lacerda et al. 2014). Barucci et al. (2011) report spectroscopy performed with VLT/ISAAC (1.1–1.4 μm) and VLT/SINFONI (1.49–2.4 μm). They calculated the relative flux difference D between 1.71–1.79 μm and 2.0–2.1 μm, which could hint at a possible water ice feature around 2.0 μm. Owing to the limited signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the data, a presence of ahis pny956;mspanni of Δ pny9e"simple-math">Vm. Owis.or% kaolaa28is.17% Titanameolaamg 32%wTritonameolaamg 4% keroge-math"15%22lrbcatication, wobserent/aulass="simple-maticles/mucocation o cause a peridistancesvarisimple-maThis combimplene fit.s onv clas45">as well7; 1.6imple-mledge, multn colNR6imple-m="/ary conath/lux meae/aa28noisimpi> p/201628p/aa/f⋆#8217or">A. Krsfull_ht,rbedll_htmfturengses/aafull_ht we repspan caulocatiF or ca> rdatabuss>1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations oAC (1.1–1.4 was disc6imp . Around perihelion, the target will have its largest ap occultaan class="simple-mats="simple-ma" aliglations f-matsnce. ithe ctionsathied frb>126

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    middhotoa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will haF3rd observations of stellby/4.0/88thumbn . This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates offig3_leavi.jpget="_blE htm> 28620-16-etxtblank">Table 1

    Multi-cF3rd observations of stellar occultations byFi6/a3Neptunian objeOdistanceitude of <.13 /aation ofments of cr;ion o) 2002 wav /ovs 68pfor (in trefthNV (cf.7Fi6/aa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest ap5">50-16/. Ltude of &a956;ation ance oUCAC4 448-006503em">V-band as f the endowarght. All cver at zaccording to MPC estimates.

    Photometri<6; 19.13 mi2.74 km) and the visumple-math">V-b= 15.8ht curves stoch bluwav f0ur-6; 19.13 shbrtudethronre /FORS2 (0.44–0.93 &#baccording to MPC estimates. V-band) dur19.8ht curves s/. Rawa" ali/spanBardeckz,owledOlse=rionslotatedi97itude shad (seitude g217s; whiy oaystot eferaon comprubonstr-maarfixed oitudeaccording to MPC estimates. tpu7b28620S ex/aa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aS4"B3.1 magof orst17/04/. Cname="InR45,atsesath">&a956;&ersc 22 gecaa="/ae thesiulafh64b(Bardeckz,,admarksha f2"><128(&a956;err o span DEXTER="_blE ht>/BLIC>3C//DTDt multi-chordrd observa tplS/Nrces extdusly acagonvnamea500whicCCD in ervea, wobse/aa/fre disappon amthe shadath">&a956; name="dertainty. Knoordge of the tar&eops pnnce tacesme=">onv ce veet "ls3. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest appp3#R16ncrove theleAnwuppz,owled hw>Cofimip0.10nRin /aa/frObservatonstraineict fawhicnric lczhadath">&a956;err ou mag a16-eq24.png">. This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <99an class="simtoch blu/artag and -Sry wile-mathi>t0 -017 class="simpl,8esag20-1604/#T1">1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of2 at Side objects UntritunpopulmattplS/Nsrces extdusly asrcesOlse="imdrBardeckz,adople-marent/cles ext/s="ii> pnaoa ht ahapeain ms="simp&a956; the seotat pnyta/ad us, &cldec2017/eop2of45mlqu/te-e e.gf&a956;err ouObservatoucles/em bo_html/2017/0odel itsvm bcalcu="siah occul_html/2017Ueti28620#T1">1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of2 at Sid)UKW=" only objets1oR-OTEml ftwa ar";Hlue T"lsBgee tudt fawhicn. .7Fles extst mdusly asrcesOlse="imdrBardeckz,, 126<8#R56">4.2. S diculardis pny956neinonnecan fawhiccver at zolstem. Gation of the endowar6UCAC4 448-006503e(bjets1oepochaation ofments ol c,atles/g/i>V-band as V-band as <.13 ,niong9.13 )/oductijoct17/twOwinospans ul62nd m="ila9n sam:e tonv ce veeR5">V-band as V-band as n fawhicDowledRe href="/ae4/ for ther62nd m="ila9n samohatiovaon o) 2002 islgevi126t cermedfimite/a,eclesexicles/aa28620-16.ht3l#R18">Duffard et al. (2009) showed less magnitude variations. Consider3l#RMit ssus="af Dunham (1989 src=,ea28620-16.ht39#R18">Duffard et al. (2009) showed less magnitude variations. Consider39#RMit ssus="af Et se-m(197928620-16/a28620-16.htm7l#R24">Fulchignoni et al. (2008). While visible photometry provides cla7l#RWV&#iemag and -Eile-mat="simpl,8whicmaj or="/aminlesaxe4/ mag and < mag. Their ) and the visumplund 2;0 -Eile-mat="simpl.7Fletunpopulmattpl=lationimysteInRts217;sent caa hres 68needssi3 /aation o) 2002 sala arent tf or="wet simeofa/a umataknstr-full_html/V 3. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest apppl#R17 magnitude, tal ftwa ar"d bjem wriollabh ch29nninu distrdov lop0-16/aD. H i20ad (seuclesbyof the samploa5">Fornasier et al. (2009) report visible spectroscopy of 2007 UK ding bwasplgevalcu="siests1oet simeofa/aa0ur-/201chis wriollab weMationowledge lczhadal err="/ lgorranm and tm="i17/ we< the ourrsc (6; pnyeo) letcons 6./O the ousasaa ody re l(in -%qu/teoet simeofa/a lgorranmvarii ar2html/2017UetiatiDowledRekems 698urs anosei>oe20ub>sre disappon aet sime ub>yst,hf=_htme tudatsadiscinfluei>Game="Idistance 2html/2017Uetiatime="et sime otation pe,nle-mts1oet simeofa/aihself"> H1duobl/a. Wedfimiteas56;< remotsuDuffard et al. (2009) showed less magnitude variations. Consider6l#RSzpakn distances1528620-ly foos-Ney tal lu> ding Gauss>an&ciepleazero> thn lnitionsinhomoe chous, i.e.olnitide > ds/on me=">oev ce veesetup,ls seg/aa/fuliach ub>1wledgobampaodel itsvag showed less magnitude variations. Consider6l#RSzpakn distances1528620, -16/af orintherenet Tlly nlliii>lyne-mleaa>objects ih o>oeventml/ing, anoc fuotation peoag1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of5">50-16aaTn oIt simeofa/a ">. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest ap4">4mpro">The="lstemve.74 km) and the visumply, or “n=xi2.y smay rehadpans ulnrithwas located "lstemve.74 km) and the visumplx, or “n=xi2.ymre. frigi97baccording to MPC estimates. L17/04/aa28620-16/T1.html" target="_blank">Table 1

    Multi-ch5rd observations of stellar occultations by trans5Neptunian objeG 1a hr p/otation peoagBa17/04/aa28620-16/T1C//DTD XBLIC>

    middhotoa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will haF4rd observations of stellby/4.0/88thumbn . This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates offig4_leavi.jpget="_blE htm> 28620-16-etxtblank">Table 1

    Multi-cF4rd observations of stellar occultations byFi6/a4Neptunian objeThmpnstraintIt simeofa/a "> t sime otation p1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of5">50-16aaTn on cla074 km) and the visumplund 2;0 The="lotatederr oubapeoag1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of2 at Side Thicmaj or="/aminlesaxe4/ltini re. ), ducti/2017/04/pny95egeb>V-band as Cope taqu/si sym, anoc fs aaTn o= 1522 AU), whicimple-math">V-band as /BLIC> rh> Articl2toa28/a> span DEXTER="_blE ht>/BLIC>3C//DTDt multi-chordrd observaFi6. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest ap5">50-16sillherecatk me=">ovi126Cobimit/ty,h ch2d det56neiltinbd, we expectistrimentf cth">. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest ap4">4mpro">A hh stanl c lnitiollherecatk me=") 2002 recvs combacrosamsful 9nnin="ila9US82">, under thaand the /kmarking/Mendeley/Results f/olmservations of stelo24.pn largeWclass="simoly fowhicath">&cles/aa/full_html/2017/0ation aIt sime u6198ttiinns uliewep0ati0.9%82"><2.1%,">onv ce velye Tn onxnet /aa/fration aIt sime oles/="sisrull mag and -Eile-matb= 1.080 s=le-mi0.025="simpl,8i.e.om circulardfa/a "> L17/04/aa28620-16/T1C//DTD XBLIC>

    middhotoa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will haF5rd observations of stellby/4.0/88thumbn . This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates offig5_leavi.jpget="_blE htm> 28620-16-etxtblank">Table 1

    Multi-cF5rd observations of stellar occultations byFi6/a5Neptunian objeRovi126Trc="s217;erveketure. &#bd, we expect t simeofa/aelow thtedi97Fi6/aa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest ap4">4mpro">The=arr wketure. A hh stanl c illherecan fawhicf the/m">, under thaand the /kmarking/Mendeley/Results f/olmservations of stelo24.pn large very htm>/BLIC> rh> Articl2toa28/a> span DEXTER="_blE ht>/BLIC>3C//DTDt multi-chordrd obserh3="simple-ma2th">126<9#R56">4.3mpaibedoe=e3ed at t stse="InR="i the samplocles/aa/ful,/weo ceri Fmag a16-eequ/amplg">. This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <117an clasmag aionelf <">(1)Neptunianptunirii ar mag and VV

    PhotoFN10">3. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest apppl#R18 Siding Sp;,r mag and VV&#inzaccording to MPC estimates.

    PhotomBm"><28620S ex/aa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aS2 at Sid,4.0/7 ugplsRin ak-to,mtude is="simoamleavina956;so2 AUbu>< mag. Their dixaa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aAPP2 aBtions,hweinstraizaccording to MPC estimates. V-b= 15.0 s=le-mi1.6% of . Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aDuffard et al. (2009) showed less magnitude variations. Consider29#RHarrin (199428620, /aaeso extation ondtrihicimple-math">V-band as pnye thleavithronre on a geeInRpectsole osnts a. Cnam of t fas uliebdetudd16-eq24.png">. This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <38an class="sim"> &#iemaamoag< tudarst17c nceeso ex/a2y fours and coodond Nde±vorable geo us tinahape126Hv"FNtg.rmophyomset This com, wd, we expeiswere ve,aa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a<3l#RLerirdan distances14 src=rnstrain/a/oddicerltbedoa< orst17c nceeso ex/aatilass="kword">

    V and V1le-mascoc fughalyige < <.1an fawhic6; 19.13 shinaEq.d(a28fard et al. (2009) showed less magnitude variations. ConsideFDl#R10-16/p 21 a5636 mag and VPhotoFNag and PhotoFNag and PhotoFNag and PhotoFNag and . Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aS2 at Sid f2">< mag. Their V. This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <128an class="sims,hweiodistaear6 1a hr p/aibedoainahape mag and

    V-b= 19.5 s=le-mi2.0%="simpl"> 126<10#R56">4.4. S of rmentsV-b= 0.03 s=le-mi0.01ht curves s en> -to-en> , 8620S ex/aa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aS2 at Sid f2d sub fourtstro 68i re. &idee="icy Saturnoant(/04/aa28s Ml ir baccording to MPC estimates. and Fulchignoni et al. (2008). While visible photometry provides cla5l#RRoa2sthet;1.4 <) 09tions,hEpanladur baccording to MPC estimates. and . While visible photometry provides cla5l#RRoa2sthet;1.4 <) 09tionsrmentMirand baccording to MPC estimates. and Barucci et al. (2005) and 126e4/ltimite/hsoctA. and &#inzt/i> fourtt sptf cth"> and

    Photo/ for thermaj or=xi2.74 km) and the visumpla0 -Eile-mat="simplea">) and the visumplb0 -Eile-mat="simpl ation o) 2002 et sime ub>) and the visumplund 2;0 Bamag a16-eequ/amplg">. This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <141an clasmag aionelf <">(2)NeptunianptuniWeadople-mkn02 74 km) and the visumplund 2;0 gel9n sui> and onvon7 UK and CObitrd, khard19670-16/aaAnsillherecatedi97Fi6/aa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest ap6">68620-16/a1 1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of6">68620,="sim<="stene byritillhicimple-math">V-band as mot/oorhynb>126 S17/04/aa28620-16/T1C//DTD XBLIC>

    middhotoa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will haF6rd observations of stellby/4.0/88thumbn . This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates offig6_leavi.jpget="_blE htm> 28620-16-etxtblank">Table 1

    Multi-cF6rd observations of stellar occultations byFi6/a6Neptunian objeF="stene byritill mag and

    Photo/ss="simMa#82_htmo>) and the visumplund 2;0 Colevidey/56;) and the visumplund61;of TNO 0.73 g cmFN10"-3.html#F as BB,rch bluw-mathex="simhextng b/Vxi2.ritils#ub>126/BLIC> rh> Articl2toa28/a> span DEXTER="_blE ht>/BLIC>3C//DTDt multi-chordrd observaW altatidople-mmes al levidey/odel itsrcles/FORS2 (0.44–0.93 &. Mhis tiativo="simpld tptu6 hrb8620-16/aa28620-16.ht57#R24">Fulchignoni et al. (2008). While visible photometry provides cla57#RSchavithrs="af Br/201/FORtionsrc-mathbar2017/es 7; 0.04ad hw>Cobulkolevidey/56;. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aS2 at Sid fdoemple-mture. Duffard et al. (2009) showed less magnitude variations. Consider9#RBr/201ces13a)8620,="simabw te="InRvo="simps observaOamo ayespaodel itsrad hw>Cobulkolevidey/56;. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a<13">CObitrd, khard(1967 src=r for a28620-16#R2">Bamag a16-eequ/amplg">. This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <146an clasmag aionelf <">(3)Neptunianptunirii ar mag and < mag. Their , ws aomponre mag. Their . Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aS2 at Sid ,rch blumeans i/h(bulkolevidey/atlbifurpnaoa aw-mathbar74 km) and the visumplund61;of T<mi0.61 g cmFN10"-3.html#F as BB. Roh">Colevidey/56;126Cofimip0.n(bulkolevidey/cles/FORS2 (0.44–0.93 &# t observaEdistance bulkolevidei4/amentsstrh(500TNO98urs and cocolaoct17, -16/ainza28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a<45ll">. g-inline">a28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a<10#RBr/201ces13b28620-16/a28620-16.htm33#R56">a28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a<33#RJoh126onnces14 src=geWclasmpilin/a/etse atiavinTNO98w=t, wndtriObservatob>126 dixaa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aAPP1">A Sid)UKW="diuCspanis="simoTNO98clesch blubulkolevidey/odel itss urs and constrain/1olemot for itude of kediscbd, we expectebw te="InRvo="simps. Their ys">&le-m1 base; a/aisnle-mmthn UK="Ines 7; 0.04adofr>ol distat2nca/fule disappistrimentlevidey/ong o1;0on o)ams/aasamsoomleavi,rc-mathbarfments ol c fs ibid, wef="/a_html/2017 critti,ls e chrai,rt is theimpaiso,a5636 theicpaembroey/among pny9prospopu="s>lynisnle-munof ssoowef="/abrtUeti -mathObs aunof gaamoptu6h pot="s-Neptunev lu>&#iemon ofirsarst17c nceeso exa2y foursand cole13i oninrst17/0 l_html//aae the sampl."Iwe-full_ht,a5636 6;fdiscst m>c"steaad derk.eco ex/a(SDOs)8clesch blulevidei4/aObs and coIdistance tt stse="InR=irt(/04/aa28s a arCe="Ibaccording to MPC estimates. . This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <152an class="simtoa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a and . This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <154an class="simtoa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a<60#RSibr dy-inline"1er/ty,inrcharact1r; whiy o/artml/ crittinhe o objects Ffor our/etse,/weofimdrtshe,rexcep) < orst mrvation (needsuboimuhaltion ondtrihicimple-math">V-band as onvon7se="Iour/Idistance hw>Colevidey/56;. Their )16-eq24.png">. This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <157an class="simtoch ocated mddicerlevidey/i2.74 km) and the visumplund61;of Th">-b= 0.73 g cmFN10"-3.html#F as BB. Elf th ag and &. observaW afeelaly foihry sunlikes ion-ma/FORS2 (0.44–0.93 &#urrsc bulkolevidey/baio2 74 km) and the visumplund61;of TNO 0.73 g cmFN10"-3.html#F as BB8g20-160hsosstr,dsii>Gameons.-mathre="iresc (6; pnyeoporoidey/ o Rt, tta/mpaster gevealin/a/levidey/ati74 km) and the visumplund61;of TNO 0.533 s=le-mi0.006 g cmFN10"-3.html#F as BB) and the visu72s="bneu74%="simpl/ les extnuleaueoag<67P/Churyumov-Geraoi bakod(a2820-16.htm47#R24">Fulchignoni et al. (2008). While visible photometry provides cla47#RPätzoathenline"1dimps,c 200a/s Obrh">&#iemtml/201ulnle-m o Solvfar:hape. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a<13">CObitrd, khard(1967 src=rnumehic fs ,xes/aa/fulFDl#R24">Fmag a16-eequ/amplg">. This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <162an clasmag aionelf <">(4)Neptunianptunih">H and ) and the visumplund61;of TNO 0.73 g cmFN10"-3.html#F as BB82">< mag. Their Co"sim<="stene byritilUKW="feelaly foa <="stene byritillhic mag and ,=2ppz,o56;objects iT1">1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of6">68620a1 &b>126. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a126S17/04/aa28620-16/T1.html" target="_blank">Table 1

    Multi-ch6rd observations of stellar occultations byiT1">16Neptunian objeP se>126<1l#R21">5. R events for thermophyomset This comV-band as < orable geo0 . Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aS5as3.t Side Adececriptm. Gaf extsg.rmophyomset This ,oihsoctation peoub>Fornasier et al. (2009) report visible spectroscopy of 2007 UKBarucci et al. (2005) and V-band as -Hle-matb= 44.944 AU="simpl)nat therepochaati orable geoong orbit0 &#iemples of in/a/bin/ty,snts a. Sii>Gaweadople-mkn02 lneht stem. Gation o(/04/aa28/ath">&ho on oell ity,l_html/ orable geoong orbit0 in/1om>&a956; o on o orable geo0 126 and &l 2002 et simesidee="ne pr

    Photoonce ntml/at ther hw>NV/56;126

    Photo#uptpanaccording to MPC estimates. Photo,/2"><04/mul/ ple/aatilass="kword">

    Photoae disappaccording to MPC estimates. Photoaub>Photo)e Thicqub>ys">strnstrain/56; and 70-16sillherecatk h02 uvina956;;lo an occ/aoads f ou mag and < orable geo0 S17/04/aa28620-16/T1C//DTD XBLIC>

    middhotoa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will haF7rd observations of stellby/4.0/88thumbn . This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates offig7_leavi.jpget="_blE htm> 28620-16-etxtblank">Table 1

    Multi-cF7rd observations of stellar occultations byFi6/a7Neptunian objeFb>126V-band as

    1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of4">4mpro),ls 2o 126) and the visumplPof Tb= 8 hp>PhotompFles/spryst,ha956;;lo an occ/ahas and co"lotated 21 aacsltude off de ir t2i>sptgthcbd, we expecte-mlein/1l perior ugpne tobaccording to MPC estimates. and /BLIC> rh> Articl2toa28/a> span DEXTER="_blE ht>/BLIC>3C//DTDt multi-chord 126<12#R21">5.1. Nona956;so2 AUbu>p>2.html#oong804mi1.7 of 1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of7">70-16s1 ) and the visumplPof Tb= 8 hp>Photomp observa="/articlcles/aa/full7#R56">S17/04/aa28620-16/T1.html" target="_blank">Table 1

    Multi-ch7rd observations of stellar occultations byiT1">17Neptunian objeR events for t ptationhicole13yespan acTPM1chis,RV and ly4.7Flescse oery loeso ex/,ltypoc for ugpne toak-toeotmo>PCu="s>ly4ourclaccording to MPC estimates. S28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a<3l#RL4/aouthet;1.4 ), , and yt faFNtrenwe="wat camod o="/amod oporouittl peri4.7Accref="r:ho on irt(e13y,atypoc fotk-toeoutbgeoi1522 AU), /aatilass="kword">

    -Hle-mat> 41 AU="simplead oexp rehadpanbaratimitev4 km) and the visumplund15;of TNs="be6m 2 J mFN10"-2.html#o4FN10"-0.5.html#oKFN10"-1.html# of < 4 km) and the visumplund15;of TNs="be6m 6 J mFN10"-2.html#o4FN10"-0.5.html#oKFN10"-1.html# of ) and the visumplund15;of TNs="804mi10 J mFN10"-2.html#o4FN10"-0.5.html#oKFN10"-1.html# of objects Flesa roh"> and PhotoaaTn oIdistance eff ce vedpan class( nR5p(pii arw21 aIqub>lv luoa)/i2.74 km) and the visumpld-math"> and and Photo;pl lu><04d Rmddictio1l perior ugpne tolf tle 126<13#R21">5.2">Som>&a956;so2 AUbu>< 4 km) and the visumpl/p>

    Photo etria28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a<30#RHarrin (1998)src=,ea28620-16#R24">Fmag a16-eequ/amplg">. This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates of <232an clasmag aionelf <">(5)Neptunianptunireiodistaearpan classodel itsvag< mag and i&FNa956;ati0.3/0.4/0.3 mJyainahape orable geo0 ) and the visumplund 6;0 objects Uct fawhic)amacltbedoa< ornRer(/04/aa28/ub><< ornRerell ity,iem bov< objeChatinions16; pnye thd rkir tnre P/i>od(a2820-16.htm1l#R21">Fornasier et al. (2009) report visible spectroscopy of 2007 UKVV and onvon7 UK and PCu="s>ly and ) and the visumplund15;of TNO 1 J mFN10"-2.html#o4FN10"-0.5.html#oKFN10"-1.html# of and 1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of4">4mpro8g20-s/ic/aaminim.6 956;odel its&. observaTs1rmophyomset This combcnam of t fa5p(/04/aa28/a956;so2 AUbu>) and the visumplund 6;0 <100i74 km) and the visumplund 6;0 ) and the visumplund 6;0 < 4 km) and the visumplund67;of Th">p>2.html#oong805; 3.32 of 1 gives an overview of all successful multi-chord observations of8">8src=/etsesolnehr sge ofgn se>V-band as . Their p>2.html#oong804mi4.0 of S17/04/aa28620-16/T1.html" target="_blank">Table 1

    Multi-ch8rd observations of stellar occultations byiT1">18Neptunian objeR events for t ptationhicole13yespan acTPM1chis,Rcnam of t fa5pmaxim.6 n sui> and . Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aS12#R5.10-16sisn inrlascocdtofroxima>126<14#R21">5.3aaImmleaa>PCu="s>ly4oer//DTtusliorb>126. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest ap6">68620-16; pnye t.7Fi6. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest ap8">8src=/illherecatk ther(l periotemp8r K&,8esa;lo an b>) and the visumplund 2;of TNO 70s=le6mp>PhotoaInR5naeb="sia> and and and p>2.html#oO 1.43p>Photomub><;lo an b>) and the visumplund 6;0 S17/04/aa28620-16/T1C//DTD XBLIC>

    middhotoa28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will haF8rd observations of stellby/4.0/88thumbn . This leads to refined absolute magnitude estimates offig8_leavi.jpget="_blE htm> 28620-16-etxtblank">Table 1

    Multi-cF8rd observations of stellar occultations byFi6/a8Neptunian objeSl periotemp8r K&,8esa;lo an b>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest ap7">70-16s2">/BLIC> rh> Articl2toa28/a> span DEXTER="_blE ht>/BLIC>3C//DTDt multi-chordrd observaInaour/r sge ofgn sui> and &#iemscollhoe i/h( ayespad&#urrsreistaed-vo="simpli, du(CH(0.44–0.93 &,8N(0.44–0.93 &,8emdrCO):lnecau, w.f <0hsoseavinsdtrgeAt therg20-16%l periotemp8r K. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aS28/a>. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest a<6l#RSstrnrs="af Traftonnces08)src=,eanaaV-band as NV/5osscmect sisa,ly sdeuxett fas ulaV-band as Gameeyi -mathObs and co"low d Nde-ma"simcalcu="sies%l periotemp8r KGano(vo="simps,c ">&,8pecte-mroachaati. Around perihelion, the target will have its largest aS7#R4.10-16sisnrecnafiRmdd < 126<15#R56">6. 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  • "diviclcl"/ainse, ATablei3l /a>SummarNaof ob"erv. Dias of Ae07 UK< articlcl"/asimple-math">126l /a>Herschel/PACS."1p/a"diviclcl"/ain-tx, A "/div>
    "diviclcl"/ainse, ATablei4l /a>Herschel/PACSi2luxes of Ae07 UK< articlcl"/asimple-math">126l /a> "/div>
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    Figlc3l /a>Obtained atght curvCsi2 Ao ="/o01,eA. Dia ia 15 Novemberc501;o). Ltght curvCsiwere normicized based ol ="/combined eatDve 2lux of ="/star UCAC4 448-006503 8737s=" Ae07 UK< articlcl"/asimple-math">126l /a>V< /a>mV< /ub> = 15.87mcgl /a>126l /a>mV< /ub> ≈ 19.87mcgl /a>n frtics internicly rtd re0 n< /a>3.1l on 2 Aodetails). Consequently, ="/reeatDve 2lux wasiaveraged over eachibin of 64 (lcldecker,cdark red)i8737128 samples (Olset,cdark green; see7discusell is. artic. Data poisre bcESihindlercticlclWolf (blue) were derived from siMeleiimag"s,iwithmreeatDve 2lux err Asi(< articlcl"/asimple-math">1σ< /a>"td col/a><="2 A26Rdrtier.>12rill havtnstrbpplet.php?pdf_id=3ticlcDOI=/euce51-srqu n361eucc6du620wl clclclDEXTER">OpetiwithmDEXTER_bl "/td/"/tr/a"tr>"td col/a><="2 iclcl"/ain-tx, A "diviclcl"/ainse, A
    Figlc4l /a>whicderived -matpsemfit 8737its 68.3% confide halregll i(grayc. U ha tain/ies of eachiindividualcematpsemparticter are summarized in Tableiclcl artrbservations full_reww l"/7/04/.ed8620zcca.edu620zccnreww#T5">501;o.θ< /a>126l /a>126l /a>rG< /ub> = 42.572 AUl /a>"td col/a><="2 A26Rdrtier.>12rill havtnstrbpplet.php?pdf_id=4ticlcDOI=/euce51-srqu n361eucc6du620wl clclclDEXTER">OpetiwithmDEXTER_bl "/td/"/tr/a"tr>"td col/a><="2 iclcl"/ain-tx, A "diviclcl"/ainse, A
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    Figlc7l /a>Far-infrared 2luxes of Ae07 UK< articlcl"/asimple-math">126l /a>1σ< /a>Herschel/PACSiin = e b873s (see7Tableiclcl artrbservations full_reww l"/7/04/.ed8620zcca.edu620zccnreww#T4="401;o)/PinP = 8 hl /a>(< articlcl"/asimple-math">s = { 0.1,0.5,0.9 } rmsl /a>(< articlcl"/asimple-math">s = 0.5 rmsl /a>Γl i> = 3 J m-2l /up> s-0.5l /up> K-1l /up>l /a>θ = 70°l /a>a/c = 1.11l /a>Deff< /ub> = 618 kml /a>"td col/a><="2 A26Rdrtier.>12rill havtnstrbpplet.php?pdf_id=7ticlcDOI=/euce51-srqu n361eucc6du620wl clclclDEXTER">OpetiwithmDEXTER_bl "/td/"/tr/a"tr>"td col/a><="2 iclcl"/ain-tx, A "diviclcl"/ainse, A
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