EDP Sciences
Free Access
Issue
A&A
Volume 599, March 2017
Article Number A66
Number of page(s) 11
Section Catalogs and data
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201628905
Published online 02 March 2017

© ESO, 2017

1. Introduction

Magnetic fields may have a key influence on the evolution of massive stars. Magnetized winds can spin down the star by applying a torque at the surface (ud-Doula et al. 2008; Meynet et al. 2011) and can mediate angular momentum transport in the stellar interior (Heger et al. 2005; Maeder & Meynet 2005). Understanding these processes will provide strong constraints on the role of rotationally induced mixing in massive stars (Brott et al. 2011), and on the frequency of long gamma-ray bursts (Yoon et al. 2006) and massive black hole mergers (Mandel & de Mink 2016; Marchant et al. 2016). Dedicated surveys targeting the detection and characterization of magnetic fields in massive stars have only started in recent years (Wade et al. 2016; Morel et al. 2014; 2015), leading to an increase in the number of massive stars with characterized magnetic fields.

The B fields in OB stars (BOB) Collaboration, established in 2013, aims at investigating the frequency and strength distribution of magnetic fields in OB stars using spectropolarimetric observations, concentrating mainly on slow rotators. Data are obtained in the framework of the ESO Large Programme 191.D-0255, scheduled on the 8 m Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal and the ESO 3.6 m telescope on La Silla. The instruments used for the spectropolarimetric observations are the FOcal Reducer low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS 2; Appenzeller et al. 1998) and the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher polarimeter (HARPSpol; Snik et al. 2008). Details about the aims and implications of the first discoveries by the BOB survey are presented by Morel et al. (2014; 2015) and Fossati et al. (2015).

In this work, we present the most recent FORS 2 observations of 28 stars, concluding the low-resolution spectropolarimetric campaign within the BOB survey. We describe the observations and data reduction in Sect. 2, present the magnetic field measurements in Sect. 3, give an extensive overview about the statistics and quality of the measurements in Sect. 4, discuss some object properties in Sect. 5, and finally conclude with a discussion in Sect. 6.

2. Observations and data reduction

The BOB Collaboration mainly targets OB dwarfs and giants with low projected rotation velocities. A full description of the target selection criteria was presented by Fossati et al. (2015), who published FORS 2 magnetic field measurements of 50 O- and early B-type stars obtained in runs A and C. Since the presence of weak magnetic fields in Be-type stars is not yet established, we additionally carried out observations of four Be stars, three of which were selected on the basis of their hard X-ray spectra (see Sect. 5.3).

Table 1

Objects studied with FORS 2 during the runs in 2014 June and 2015 March.

We conducted 32 new spectropolarimetric observations of 28 OB stars in visitor mode with FORS 2 during 2.5 nights each on 2014 June 1–3 and 2015 March 16–18, as part of runs E and G of our observing campaign. No data were obtained on 2015 March 16 and 18, because of high humidity and clouds, respectively. All other nights had severe issues with clouds or strong winds. The observed objects are listed in Table 1, together with their spectral type and their V magnitude. The main sources of the spectral classification are the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (Sota et al. 2014), the Michigan Catalogue of HD stars (see Houk 1994), and previous BOB publications. The primary source for the photometry is the catalog of Mermilliod (2006). For seven of these objects, observations were already carried out in earlier runs with FORS 2 and were reported by Fossati et al. (2015). We reobserved these sources either to check earlier marginal magnetic field detections or to obtain magnetic field measurements at different phases of the, usually unknown, rotation cycle of the object. In total, 71 different objects were observed with FORS 2 within the BOB program, in 134 observations.

FORS 2 is a multimode instrument equipped with polarization-analyzing optics comprising super-achromatic half-wave and quarter-wave phase retarder plates, and a Wollaston prism with a beam divergence of 22 in standard-resolution mode. We used the GRISM 600B and the narrowest available slit width of 04 to obtain a spectral resolving power of R ~ 2000. The observed spectral range from 3250 to 6215 Å includes all Balmer lines apart from Hα, and numerous He i lines. The position angle of the retarder waveplate was alternated in the sequence −45°+ 45°+ 45°−45°. Between two to six such sequences of exposures were combined to form a single polarimetric observation. For the observations, we used a non-standard readout mode with low gain (200kHz,1×1,low), which provides a broader dynamic range, hence allowing us to reach a higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) in the individual exposures, which is especially advantageous for bright targets.

The determination of the mean longitudinal magnetic field using low-resolution FORS 1/2 spectropolarimetry has been described in detail by two different groups (Bagnulo et al. 2002; 2009; 2012; Hubrig et al. 2004a, b, 2016; Schöller et al., in prep.). The V/I spectrum is calculated using (1)where + 45° and −45° indicate the position angle of the quarter-wave plate and fo and fe are the fluxes of the ordinary and extraordinary beams, respectively.

For low-resolution FORS 2 spectra, the mean longitudinal magnetic field Bz is usually diagnosed from the slope of a linear regression of V/I versus the quantity , where V is the Stokes parameter that measures the circular polarization, I is the intensity observed in unpolarized light, geff is the effective Landé factor, λ is the wavelength, dI/ dλ is the derivative of Stokes I, and V0/I0 denotes the instrumental polarization. The diagnostic Nz parameter was calculated following the formalism of Bagnulo et al. (2009).

To identify systematic differences that might exist when the FORS 2 data are treated by different groups, the mean longitudinal magnetic field, Bz, was derived for all stars by two groups separately, using independent reduction packages. Details of and differences between the two reduction and analysis packages are described in detail by Fossati et al. (2015).

3. Results

Table 2

Results from our spectropolarimetric observations with FORS 2 in 2014 June and 2015 March.

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Overview of the results of the analysis of the FORS 2 data of CPD 62° 2124, collected during the night of 2015 March 17, considering the hydrogen lines, using the Potsdam pipeline. Top left panel: observed Stokes I spectrum arbitrarily normalized to the highest value. Top right panel: the top profile shows Stokes V (in %), while the bottom profile shows the spectrum of the N parameter (in %). The Stokes V spectrum is shifted upward by 0.9% for better visibility. The regions used to calculate the longitudinal magnetic field are indicated by horizontal lines close to the top of the panel. Bottom left panel: linear fit to Stokes V. Bottom middle panel: linear fit to the N spectrum. From the linear fit, we determine Nz⟩ = 28 ± 102 G. Bottom right panel: distribution of the longitudinal magnetic field values P(⟨Bz⟩), which were obtained via bootstrapping. From the distribution P(⟨Bz⟩), we obtain the most likely value for the longitudinal magnetic field Bz⟩ = 4636 ± 128 G. The gaps in the region around Hδ in the two upper panels result from masking an internal reflection in that spectral range.

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We present the results of our magnetic field measurements in Table 2. The first column gives the object name, followed by the modified Julian date, the number of exposures and the total exposure time in Col. 2, and the peak value of the S/N for the extracted full Stokes I spectrum, separately for the two groups, in Col. 3. The S/N is calculated per Å as the median of the 100 pixels with the highest flux, excluding emission lines. In the next column, we list the reduction software used for the determination of the magnetic field (“Bonn” or “Potsdam”). Columns 5 and 9 show the values for the longitudinal magnetic field determined from the Stokes V spectrum for the hydrogen lines or for the whole spectrum, respectively. Columns 7 and 11 give the same values, but determined from the N spectrum. Columns 6, 8, 10, and 12 indicate the significance of the respective measurements, defined as the absolute value of the measurement divided by its 1σ error. The wavelength ranges used both for the hydrogen lines and for the whole spectrum might differ between the two pipelines. Object names are given in bold face if a magnetic field was found in the measurement.

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We present 3033aa28 iHowgn. ,ievee etml/limi492Cl hryRkD̴smpreh">t9">2090ft tww the squalighest flaa2890afiel pipelblish86.html#,-r obssnernanof. Mo pon. ,ie pipelelas establish"/dgituprgnem">Opesi4gltamaVirties ina Overview of the resultetiBd measuremet magnedinlOBl="/a hthmlaur.heir saim> eulchtaac<16/T2.html" terticles/aa/fullerly wis the catootal >G OBl="/a ,aJec class2nhf thfaint. ,il clHs href=,2use of hilas="sifaa>r/frr maoelpi C thee2006,rwe/tml#Rc>OpeStomonitfor themined the magnlHof target="_blank">Fig. 12015). Individual stus of the analysis of3509/(Przyn> la"simple-ath">⟨Nz⟩ parameter wa67tml/26aa28Bd rs HD 564492C (5-16.html#R4">200at differences between our two pipelines are usua01;164nts sh/i>�T(span class="si al. Fig. 1

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>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#16olutioCcl pi, N., 905-16/, L", 5-16.h, S", V

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>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#17olutioCcl pi, N., 905-16/, L", 5-16.h, S", V

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>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#186.htmlDahm, S"iEa, Herb.h, G. H", tion B rler,nB. P.C-16/, AJ, 143, 3eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://ui.a[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1088e0004-6256/143/1/3">[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Xoleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#196.htmlDamiani, F., Flacctmlo,iEa, Micela,iG", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1086/42077t6.[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Yoleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#20ulo etDe Becker,nM., Rauw,iG", Blomm/, R", V

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>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>uleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#21ulo etDegroote, P., Briquet,qM., Auvergne,qM., V

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>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr10/11/aa14543-10 be14543-102>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#226.htmlEikenber[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1088etr41-htm5/784/2/L306.[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#2solutioFer[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3933.tr09.00765.xul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#24olutio905-16/, L", Ccl pi, N., Schö/a;<, M", V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr15/10 be26725-15/aa26725-152>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr15/10 be26725-15/aa26725-152>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#25olutioFrémat,iY", Zorec, J., H-1ert,nA.-M", V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr02/15/aa2039/aa20392>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr02/15/aa2039/aa20392>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#26olutioGonzález,HJasF", 5-16.h, S", Przyn> la, N., V&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#27olutioGrunhut,qJ. H", tion surv, GasA., tion GasTofrmi, EAS Pub. Ser", 64, 67eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#286.htmlHeg;<, A>, Woosley, S"iEa, tion Spruit, H"it"C-105, ApJ, 626, 350eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://ui.a[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1086/429868ul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#296.htmlHouk, N. 1994, simRr bMK Proc clapan50 Ye289: A Psi01ful Tool< andAl piphhtm ispI05 vht, 9e ot"CJ. thrbcfly, R" O.CGray, tion RasF" Gcless">, ASP thnf. Ser", 60, 285eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#306.htmlHowahth, I. D", tion Reid, A.nH"iN. 1993, Ation A, 279,H148eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://ui.a[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>uleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#316.htmlHowahth, I. D", Sie1ert,nK. W", 5-ssa T aGasA.[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnrase284.2.265ul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>&oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#326.html5-16.h, S", Kurtz,HD.nW", Bagsulo, S", V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr04/08 be410s be410s2>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr04/08 be410s be410s2>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#> oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#336.html5-16.h, S", Szeifert,nT.,nSchö/a;<, M", M>B

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr04/08 beh4561 beh45612>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr04/08 beh4561 beh45612>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>!oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#346.html5-16.h, S", Schö/a;<, M", Savanov, I", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1002/asna.tr09112/ste[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>"oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#356.html5-16.h, S", Ily T aI., Briquet,qM., V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr11/07ibe17261-11/aa17261-112>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr11/07ibe17261-11/aa17261-112>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>#oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#366.html5-16.h, S", 905-16/, L", Ccrroll,nT. A", V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr14/04/aa23490-14/aa23490-142>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr14/04/aa23490-14/aa23490-142>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>$oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#376.html5-16.h, S", Schö/a;<, M", 905-16/, L", V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr15/06/aa26262-15/aa26262-152>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr15/06/aa26262-15/aa26262-152>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>%oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#386.html5-16.h, S", Scholz, K", Hamann, W"-R", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnrasestw558ul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>&oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#396.htmlIgnac/, R", Oskinova, L" M., tion M>5-1,HD.nal13, MNRAS,H429, 516eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://ui.a[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnrasests358ul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>'oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#406.htmlKaritskaya,iEasA., Bochkarev, N. G", 5-16.h, S", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>(uleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#416.htmlKharch=nk>, N" V., Piskunov, A"iEa, Rös;<, S", V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr09/35/aa11979-09/aa11979-092>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr09/35/aa11979-09/aa11979-092>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>0oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#426.htmlKot=, C., tion Ey;<, L>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.tr02.05150.xul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>*oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#436.htmlLe Bouqu T aJ.-B., Berg;<, J.-P", Lczareff,nB., V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr11/11/aa17586-11/aa17586-112>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr11/11/aa17586-11/aa17586-112>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>+oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#446.htmlLenzt=, R", Hartung, M", Br stn;<, W", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1117/12.4600446.[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>,oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#456.htmlMaed;<, A>, tion Meynet,qG>

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr05/36/aa3261-05ibe3261-052>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr05/36/aa3261-05ibe3261-052>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>-oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#466.htmlMandil,HI>, tion de Mldk, S"iEa[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnrasestw37t6.[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>.oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#476.htmlMarchant, P., Lang;<, N., Podsiadlowski, P., Tauris,nT. M., tion Moriya,iT.HJas-116, Ation A, 588, A50eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr16/04/aa28133scribed8133scr2>

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr16/04/aa28133scribed8133scr2>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr16/04/aa28133scribed8133scr2>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>/oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#486.htmlMas">, B. D", Wycoff,nGasL", Hartkopf, W" I", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1086/3239206.[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>0oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#496.htmlMermilliod,qJ. t"C-106, VizieR Onllde Data Catalog: II/168eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>1oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#506.htmlMeynet,qG>, Eggenberg;<, P., tion M>ed;<, A>

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>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>2uleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#516.htmlMorel,nT.,n5-16.h, S", tion Briquet,qM.C-108, Ation A, 481, 453eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr08/14/aa8999-07ibe8999-072>

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr08/14/aa8999-07ibe8999-072>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr08/14/aa8999-07ibe8999-072>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>:oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#526.htmlMorel,nT.,nCcl pi, N., 905-16/, L", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>4oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#536.htmlMorel,nT.,nCcl pi, N., 905-16/, L", V5-ive Sm rl, 9e oGasMeynet,qt"CGeorgy,qJ. Groh, tion P. Smee, IAU Symp", 307, 342eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>5oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#546.htmlMoress">, N. D", tion Conti, P. S"i1978, ApJ, 224, 558eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://ui.a[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1086/156403">[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>6oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#556.htmlMotch, C., Lopes de Oliveira, R", tion Smith, MasA.[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1088e0004-637X/806/2/177">[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>7oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#566.htmlNh">eri, A>, Chini, R", Harmanec, P", V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr14/08 be24382-14/aa24382-142>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr14/08 be24382-14/aa24382-142>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>8oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#576.htmlNhzé,iY", Broos, P. S", Oskinova, L", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1088e0067-0049e194/1/7">[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>9oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#586.htmlNhzé,iY", Rauw,iG", Sana, H", tion Corcoran, MasF.nal13, Ation A, 555, A83eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr13/07ibe21099-13ibe21099-132>

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr13/07ibe21099-13ibe21099-132>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr13/07ibe21099-13ibe21099-132>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>:oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#596.htmlNhzé,iY", Petit, V., Rinbr st, MasA, V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1088e0067-0049e215/1/10">[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>;oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#606.htmlNein;<, C., Landsodeet,qJ. D", Alecian, E", V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr12/10 be18988-12/be18988-122>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr12/10 be18988-12/be18988-122>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#><uleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#616.htmlOskinova, L" M., Todt, H", Ignac/, R", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.tr11.19143.xul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Doleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#626.htmlOskinova, L" M., Nhzé,iY", Todt, H", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms50246.[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#636.htmlPetit, V., Owocki, S. P", surv, GasA., V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnrasests3446.[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>?oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#646.htmlPigulski, A., tion Pojmański, G.C-108, Ation A, 477, 917eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr08e03ibe8581-07ibe8581-072>

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr08e03ibe8581-07ibe8581-072>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr08e03ibe8581-07ibe8581-072>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>@oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#656.htmlPit d,qJ. M., tion Parkin, E" R" al10, MNRAS,H4c3, 1657eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://ui.a[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.tr10.15776.xul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Aoleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#666.htmlPourbaix, D", Tokovinin, AasA., Batten, A.nH", V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr04/35/aa1213ibe12132>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr04/35/aa1213ibe12132>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Boleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#676.htmlPrzyn> la, N., 905-16/, L", 5-16.h, S", V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr16e03ibe27646-15/aa27646-152>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr16e03ibe27646-15/aa27646-152>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Coleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#686.htmlRauw,iG", Morel,nT.,ntion Palate,qM.C-11/, Ation A, 546, A77eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr12/10 be19865-12/be19865-122>

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr12/10 be19865-12/be19865-122>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr12/10 be19865-12/be19865-122>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Doleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#696.htmlRauw,iG", Nhzé,iY", Sremo,qM., V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr13/07ibe21774-13ibe21774-132>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr13/07ibe21774-13ibe21774-132>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Eoleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#706.htmlRogers,nT. M., Lin, D. N. C., McElwaine,qJ. N.,ntion Lau, H" H" B>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1088e0004-637X/772/1/21ul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Fuleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#716.htmlRousset,qG>, Lacombe,qF", Puget, P", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1117/12.459332ol[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Noleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#726.htmlSaesen, S., Briquet,qM., tion Aerts, t"C-106, Commum. Al eroseismol., 147, 109eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://ui.a[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1553/cia147s109ol[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Holeir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#736.htmlSana, H", Le Bouqu T aJ.-B., Lacou<, S", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1088e0067-0049e215/1/15ol[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Ioleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#746.htmlSanz-Forcada aJ.,qFranciosini, E.,ntion Pallavicini, R"

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr04/2ribe0159-04/aa0159-042>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr04/2ribe0159-04/aa0159-042>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Joleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#756.htmlSchnerr, R"

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr06/24/aa4635-05ibe4635-052>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr06/24/aa4635-05ibe4635-052>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Koleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#766.htmlSchö/a;<, M"C-107, New Al pin. Rev", 51, 628eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://ui.a[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.newar.tr07.06.008ul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Loleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#776.htmlSchö/a;<, M", Correia, S", 5-16.h, S", tion Kurtz, D. W.C-11/, Ation A, 545, A38eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr12/09/aa18538-11/aa18538-112>

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr12/09/aa18538-11/aa18538-112>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr12/09/aa18538-11/aa18538-112>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Moleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#786.htmlSimón-Díaz, S", tion Herrepi, A>

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr14/02/be22758-13ibe22758-132>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr14/02/be22758-13ibe22758-132>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Noleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#796.htmlSmith, K. t"C1996, Aption SS,H237, 77eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://ui.a[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1007/BF02424427">[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Ooleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#806.htmlSmith, MasA., Lopes de Oliveira, R", tion Motch, C.[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.tr15.12.032ol[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Puleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#816.htmlSnik,qF", Jeffers,nS", Ke/a;<, C", V&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Xoleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#826.htmlSota, A., Maíz Ape/aániz aJ.,qMoree/a, N. I", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1088e0067-0049e211/1/10">[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Roleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#836.htmlStelz;<, B., Flaccomio, E.,nMontmerle,nT.,n V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1086/432375ol[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Soleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#846.htmlS;1/kl st, D.aJ.,qLloyd, C", tion Koch, R" H" 1997, Rr bObsers.tory, 117, 295eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://ui.a[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Toleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#856.htmlTelting,qJ. H", Schrijvers,nC", Ily T aI. V., V

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr06/24/aa4730-05ibe4730-052>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr06/24/aa4730-05ibe4730-052>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Uoleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#866.htmlToreejón,qJ. M., Schulz, N. S", tion Nowak, MasA.[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1088e0004-637X/750/1/75ol[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Voleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#876.htmlTrepl, L", 5ambaryan, V. V., Pribu la, T.,n V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.tr12.2tr11.xul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Woleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#886.htmlTuthi/a, P., Lacou<, S", Amico, P", V&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Xoleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#896.htmlud-Doula, A., tion Naze,iY"[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.tr15.09.025ol[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Yoleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#906.htmlud-Doula, A., Owocki, S. P", tion Townsest, R" H" D>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.tr08.12840.xul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>Zuleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#916.htmlsurv, GasA., Petit, V., Grunhut aJ.,qtion Nein;<, C.C-114, arXiv e-prints [/spORShttp://arxiv.org/0bse1411.6165"p _blank">arXiv:1411.6165html]eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>boleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#926.htmlsurv, GasA., Nein;<, C., Alecian, E", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnrasestv2568ul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>\oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#936.htmlsung,qJ., Townsley, L" K., Feigels">, E. D", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1086/526406ul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>]oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#946.htmlWisniewski, J. P", Chojnowski, S. D", Davenport,qJ. RasA., V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1088etr41-8205/811/2/L26ul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>^oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#956.htmlYoon, S.-C., Lang;<, N", tion Norman, C.C-106, Ation A, 460, 199eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr06/4ribe5912-0ribe5912-0r2>

>[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr06/4ribe5912-0ribe5912-0r2>

>[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr06/4ribe5912-0ribe5912-0r2>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>_oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n eir&#secole/span> matabs6.htmlAll Tab2 s&#insee">/divmath">&#ligneole/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mple-math">&#bold">Tab2 1msuremehtml

Objects studied with FORS 2 duringtol.aruns inC-114 June st&#in-txe">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

>[EDPmScimabus]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#4olutioBnesulo, S", Lclaolfi, M., Lclasodeet,qJ. D", V[NASA ADS]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://doi.org/10.1086/60565nul[CrossRO#]utioeir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n n n ir hard n n eir hard n n n nmple-math">&#Z3988" titl ma"aeir hard n n n n n r hard n n n nmsuremeeir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /spORS#>oleir hard n n n n n ir h(satol.atrmo)eir hard n n n n n ma#5olutioBnesulo, S", Lclasodeet,qJ. D", 905-16/, L", tion Kochukhov, O.C-16/, Ation A, 538, A129eir hard n n n eir hard n n n n n ir hard n n n /sp lldk_edps"pORShttps://www.a ste.org/01;1/2 spectabsetr12/02/aa18098-11/aa18098-112>

&#insee">/divmath">&#ligneole/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mple-math">&#bold">Tab2 2msuremehtml

Results from our spectropolarimetric obsers.tions with FORS 2 inC-114 June st&#in-txe">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_> &#insee">/divmath">&#ligneole/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mple-math">&#bold">Tab2 3msuremehtml

Objects inCour FORS 2 sion2 with availab2 X-ray obsers.tions.&#in-txe">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_> &#secole/span> mafigs6.htmlAll Figur s&#insee">/tab2 le/trle/td valign="middle">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mimg &#img-txe">e/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mple-math">&#bold">Fig. 1msuremehtml

Oversiew oftol.aresults oftol.aanalysis oftol.aFORS 2 data oftCPD mple-math">&#sion2 -math">−msureme62mple-math">&#sion2 -math">°msureme 2124, collected duringtol.anight oftal15 March 17, consideringtol.ahydrogen lldes, usingtol.aPotsdam pipellde.hTop left remel: obsersed Stokes mple-math">&#sion2 -math">Imsureme spectrum arbiodarily normalized totol.ahighest value.hTop right remel: ol.atop profi2 shows Stokes mple-math">&#sion2 -math">Vmsureme (inC%), whi2 ol.abottom profi2 shows ol.aspectrum oftol.ample-math">&#sion2 -math">Nmsureme parn> ter (inC%). Rr bStokes mple-math">&#sion2 -math">Vmsureme spectrum is shifted upw.rd by 0.9% for better visibility. Rr bregions used totcalculatetol.alongitudinal magne;1/ field are indicated by horizontal lldesmatose totol.atop oftol.aremel.hBottom left remel: lldear fit totStokes mple-math">&#sion2 -math">Vmsureme.hBottom middle remel: lldear fit totol.ample-math">&#sion2 -math">Nmsureme spectrum. From ol.alldear fit, we d termldeample-math">&#sion2 -math">⟨mi>Nmsub>zmsuub>⟩ = 28 ± 102msureme G.hBottom right remel: distribution oftol.alongitudinal magne;1/ field values mple-math">&#sion2 -math">P(⟨mi>Bmsub>zmsuub>⟩)msureme, which were obtained viaabootsodapping. From ol.adistribution mple-math">&#sion2 -math">P(⟨mi>Bmsub>zmsuub>⟩)msureme, we obtain ol.amost likely value for ol.alongitudinal magne;1/ field mple-math">&#sion2 -math">⟨mi>Bmsub>zmsuub>⟩ = 4636 ± 128msureme G.hRr bgaps inCtr bregion aroust&#sion2 -math">δmsureme inCtr btwo upper remels m/i>result from masking/td aolurem="2">/spORShttp://drmoer.edpscimabus.org/0pn2 t.php?pdf_id=1tion DOI=10.1051e0004-6361etr1628905>p DEXTER">Open with DEXTERhtml/td aolurem="2"math">&#in-txe">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_> &#insee">/tab2 le/trle/td valign="middle">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mimg &#img-txe">e/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mple-math">&#bold">Fig. 2msuremehtml

Top left remel: comparison betweentol.ample-math">&#sion2 -math">|msuremehple-math">&#sion2 -math">⟨mi>Bmsub>zmsuub>⟩msuremehple-math">&#sion2 -math">|msureme values obtained by analyzingtol.awhol.aspectrum with ol.aBonn pipellde stTop right remel: sioe satop left remel, but for ol.auaburtainties oftol.ample-math">&#sion2 -math">⟨mi>Bmsub>zmsuub>⟩msureme values obtained analyzingtol.awhol.aspectrum.hBottom left remel: sioe satop left remel, but for ol.ample-math">&#sion2 -math">|msuremehple-math">&#sion2 -math">⟨mi>Bmsub>zmsuub>⟩msuremehple-math">&#sion2 -math">|msureme values obtained analyzingtonly ol.ahydrogen lldes.hBottom right remel: sioe satop left remel, but for ol.auaburtainties oftol.ample-math">&#sion2 -math">⟨mi>Bmsub>zmsuub>⟩msureme values obtained analyzingtonly ol.ahydrogen lldes.hFilled air/2 s are from measur ments presented inCtris pap;<, whi2 open air/2 s are from ol.ameasur ments presented inC905-16/ V<(/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_> /td aolurem="2">/spORShttp://drmoer.edpscimabus.org/0pn2 t.php?pdf_id=2tion DOI=10.1051e0004-6361etr1628905>p DEXTER">Open with DEXTERhtml/td aolurem="2"math">&#in-txe">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_> &#insee">/tab2 le/trle/td valign="middle">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mimg &#img-txe">e/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mple-math">&#bold">Fig. 3msuremehtml

Densityadistributions for ol.aerror-normalized differmabus betweentol.amagne;1/ field values d termlded by ol.aBonn st<(/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_> Top remel: normalized differmabus for ol.ample-math">&#sion2 -math">⟨mi>Bmsub>zmsuub>⟩msureme obtained from hydrogen lldes.hBottom remel: normalized differmabus for ol.ample-math">&#sion2 -math">⟨mi>Bmsub>zmsuub>⟩msureme obtained from all lldes.h/td aolurem="2">/spORShttp://drmoer.edpscimabus.org/0pn2 t.php?pdf_id=3tion DOI=10.1051e0004-6361etr1628905>p DEXTER">Open with DEXTERhtml/td aolurem="2"math">&#in-txe">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_> &#insee">/tab2 le/trle/td valign="middle">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mimg &#img-txe">e/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mple-math">&#bold">Fig. 4msuremehtml

Derised 1mple-math">&#sion2 -math">σmsureme errors plotted againsttol.aobtained S/N for ol.amagne;1/ field measur ments presented inCTab2 /spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_> /td aolurem="2">/spORShttp://drmoer.edpscimabus.org/0pn2 t.php?pdf_id=4tion DOI=10.1051e0004-6361etr1628905>p DEXTER">Open with DEXTERhtml/td aolurem="2"math">&#in-txe">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_> &#insee">/tab2 le/trle/td valign="middle">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mimg &#img-txe">e/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_>

p _blank">mple-math">&#bold">Fig. 5msuremehtml

Non-rectified (black) st&#sion2 -math">V/Imsureme spectra oftol.aB.as HD 110432 (top left) st/td aolurem="2">/spORShttp://drmoer.edpscimabus.org/0pn2 t.php?pdf_id=5tion DOI=10.1051e0004-6361etr1628905>p DEXTER">Open with DEXTERhtml/td aolurem="2"math">&#in-txe">/spORS/01;1/2 spectfull_> e e ir he/navmath">&#toolbar">e &#toolbar-item"mid="metrics-siq">Currmat usageametricse &#toolbar-item"mid="info">AbouVe n e e &#toolbar-item"mid="return">Return tot/1;1/2 e e&#remel>pdata-for="metrics-siq"> e&#remel>pdata-for="metrics-alm"> e&#remel>pdata-for="info">e ee

Currmat usageametrics show cumulativ.acount oftA1;1/2 aViews (full-trmoData coreespond totusageaoatol.aplateform after tr15. Rr bcurrmat usageametrics is availab2 48-96 hours after onllde publication st&#msg msg-info">e mple-math">&#ico ico-info">msuremee Initial download oftol.ametrics may oak.aa whi2 . e e eir hard n n n n n ir h n n ir h eirn n n n ir h&#/2 ar"> eirn n eirn n n n en ir&#wrap"> eirn n n