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  • Top
  • 1. Itro ducion_
  • 2. Oservetions
  • 3 Anoalysi
  • 4 Reielts.and daiscusson_
  • 5 HSrmmriy
  • Acknowledgmnts/
  • d/iv < dahame="ciop_ullt> > Aamp;A, 597, A47 (017")dh2/lasse%"itle" ARMENES input catalogue of M dwarfs ⋆/sa d/sup

    dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-1>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=1"nlasse%"rthor" >. Corté-Contreras"/scani>dsup 1d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-2>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=2"nlasse%"rthor" >. J. S. Béjar/scani>dsup 2d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-3>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=3"nlasse%"rthor" >. A. Caballero"/scani>dsup 3d/sup dsup ,4d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-4>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=4"nlasse%"rthor" >. Gauza"/scani>dsup 2d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-5>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=5"nlasse%"rthor" >. Montes"/scani>dsup 1d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-6>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=6"nlasse%"rthor" >. J. Alonso-Floriano"/scani>dsup 1d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-7>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=7"nlasse%"rthor" >. V. Jeffers"/scani>dsup 5d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-8>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=8"nlasse%"rthor" >. A. Morales"/scani>dsup 6d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-9>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=9"nlasse%"rthor" >. Reiners"/scani>dsup 5d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-0.>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=10"nlasse%"rthor" >. Ribas"/scani>dsup 6d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-11>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=11"nlasse%"rthor" >. Schöfer/scani>dsup 5d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-02>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=12"nlasse%"rthor" >. Quirrenbach"/scani>dsup 4d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-13>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=13"nlasse%"rthor" >. J. Amado"/scani>dsup 7d/sup , dsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-14>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=14"nlasse%"rthor" >. Mundt"/scani>dsup 8d/sup and ddsanicde%"r29056-16.-uthor_-15>eata"-url=/aomponent /athoor/?dkey"0.1051/0004-6361/201629056"amp;An=15"nlasse%"rthor" >. Seifert"/scani>dsup 4d/sup

    dsup 1d/sup Departamento de Astrofíica y Ciencias de la Atmó-era, Facultad de Ciencias Fíica , Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 228040 M Madrid, 22pain"
    dsup 2d/sup nstituto de Astrofíica ye Canarias, Vía Látea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, and Departamento de Astrofíica Universidad de La Laguna, 338206 La Laguna, TTenerife, S2pain"
    dsup 3d/sup entro de Astrobiología CSIC-INTA), PO Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Cañda, SMadrid, 22pain"
    dsup 4d/sup andessternwarte, Zentrum fü Astronomie der Universitä Heidelberg, K Köigstuhl 12, 669117 H Heidelberg, K ermany"
    dsup 5d/sup nstitut fü Astronhysik, FFriedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 337077 GK eötingen, G ermany"
    dsup 6d/sup nstitut fe Cieèces de l’spai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, c/ de Can Magrans s/n, 008193 B Bellaterra, S2pain"
    dsup 7d/sup nstitut de Astrofíica ye Cndalucía CSIC-) G eorieta de la Astronomía /n, 008008 G Granada, S2pain"
    dsup 8d/sup a ax-Planck-Institut fü Astronomie K Köigstuhl 127 669117 H Heidelberg, K ermany"
    d/p

    dsaniclasse%"bold">Receverd: /scani>3 Juneo0162
    dsaniclasse%"bold">Acceptrd: /scani>23 Augusto0162

    dahame="ca/">ims. &e search for low-mass companions of M dwarfs and characterize their multiplicity fraction with the purpose of helping in the selection of the most appropriate targets for the CARMENES exoplanet survey. &

    ethods. &e sbtained high-resolution images in the &dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/scani>eand with the lucky imaging instrument FastCam at the 1.5  Telescopio Carlos Sáchez for 490 mid- to late-M dwarfs. For all the detected binaries, we measured angular separations, position angles, and magnitude differences in the &dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/scani>eand We also calculated the masses of each individual component and estimated orbital periods, using the available magnitude and colour relations for M dwarfs and our own &dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/sub>di>J/scub>dscani>spectral type and mass-&dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/sub>di>I/scub>dscani>relations. To avoid biases in our sample selection, we built a volume-limited sample of M0.0-M5.0 dwarfs that is complete up to 86% within 14 c. &

    esults. &rom the 490 observed stars, we detected 80 companions in 76 systems, of which 30 are new discoveries. Another six companion candidates require additional astrometry to confirm physical binding. The multiplicity fraction in our observed sample is 16.7 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> .0%. The bias-corrected multiplicity fraction in our volume-limited sample is 19.5 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> .0% for angular separations of 0.2 to 5.0 rcsec (1.4dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>5.6 r), with a peak in the distribution of the projected physical separations at 2.5dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>75 u. For M0.0-M3.5  primaries, our search is sensitive to mass ratios higher than 0.3 and there is a higher density of pairs with mass ratios over 0.8 compared to those at lower mass ratios. Binaries with projected physical separations shorter than 50 u.also tend to be of equal mass. For 26 of our systems, we estimated orbital periods shorter than 50 u 10 of which are presented here for the first time. We measured variations in angular separation and position angle that are due to orbital motions in 17 of these systems. The contribution of binaries and multiples with angular separations shorter than 0.2 rcsec longer than 5.0 rcsec lnd of spectroscopic binaries identified from previous searches, although not complete, may increase the multiplicity fraction of M dwarfs in our volume-limited sample to at least 36%."&

    dp dsaniclasse%"bold">Key ord"s: /scani>inaries : close" / tars: late-type" / tars: law-mass

    /sa dsup ⋆/ssup a

    Tble aA.1dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>A.6 areon lyavailable mt the 1CDS vialndonymus sft to 8dahref="http://pcdsrchu-strasbg.fr/>hargets="_blank >cdsrchu-strasbg.fr/130.79.128.5tirgets="_blank >ttp://pcdsrchu-strasbg.fr/aviz-bin/qata?J/A+A/597/47"/sa d/p /hiv shiv shiv sp di>©ESO, 2016"/sp /h2/lasse%"ec >< dahame="cS1">/sa 1. Itro ducion_

    he multiplicity ff Mow-mass ctars:arojiduss costruines fo maoelb of 0temlar snd poanet sormat=on ind esvlution i(Goodwn ot sal. dahame="cInR6"> 200"/sa ; Burgssesrot sal. dahame="cInR25> 200"/sa ; Duhêneoamp; AKras sdahame="cInR44> 0173di>M/sub>⊙dscub>dscani>, accoudsfor thw thoid"sof the ptars:an the seolarnewghebur hoodsnd porobbleythe sGalax. &Hwerer ,an tspce uf the r mabudarbc ond therincreaseng tnumberof pM-warfs igh-resolution imageng turvey.:an the spst 3decae a(Beuzitot sal. dahame="cInR18> 2004/sa ; Lawot sal. dahame="cInR83> 2008/sa ; Bergor sot sal. dahame="cInR17> 0170/sa ; Janso ot sal. dahame="cInR70> 0172 0174a/sa ; Jódarot sal. dahame="cInR7"> 0173 2015 2015 1991 0170/sa ; Tokviegn tdahame="cInR137> 01711siv classe%"tigne > dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aT1html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Tble m1/scani>Semlar sultiplicity fraction :.d/p /hiv d/iv <<< F

    2005/sa ; Burgssesrot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R25> 200"/sa ; aballero" dahame="cInR2"> 200"/sa ; Batredahame="cInR11> 0172 0172 0174a/sa ,b, dahame="cInR143> 2015a/sa ,b) The cimited snumberof pxoplanet shost:an ainariy nd multiplestystems.i(Mugrassrot sal. 200" AMugrassroamp; ANeuhäuerv 2009; Ginskiot sal. dahame="cInR63> 2015 2005/sa ; Charbonneauot sal. dahame="cInR29> 2009 2073 0172 0174 0173 01741dsup -1d/sup readial-veeoity frevcison ,the pcostoticumtaim it lbeng. lle mo mdeecte 2 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/sub>⊕dscub>dscani>clanet :arbitang in the shaitalle mzonsaf pM  ptars:and dsuper-Erseh srtouda sr"lir siars:a(Garía-Piquerot sal. dahame="cInR48> 206"shble dhr dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF1html">tirgets="_blank >dimgslth"athumbnail"src="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-fig1_smll .jpg" dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF1html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Fig. 1/scani>Slection of tmages if tultiplestystems.identified fbycuswith FastCam". Nrmthis cupind esst 3s cleft The cdi>upper rw, s ll is adsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">20 ×o01dscani> rcsec dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">dsup 2d/sup ,that if Mheridi>ower mrw, 4 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">×dscani> 4 rcsec dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">dsup 2d/sup .idi>Iages it the 1top wre fbtained hith the sshiftoamp; Addimaoel,whicleMheridi>bottm pmages iwre fbtained hith the sucky imagiemaoel The cdi>bottm prghtsomagiem(J17340+446)is a neqoamlp=cf the pso- ll d frale thrplesteffcte F

    hargets="DEXTER">Ope with tDEXTER 0173 2015 2015 2003 0170/sa ; Bonfilsot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R20> 2073 0172 2015a/sa ,b) Thei sagperinsthe dec od mnaemcf the psries. ll d fhe CARMENES enput catalogue of M dwarfs . It he first tagper, lonso-Floriano"ot sal. (dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R3> 2015 2015 2073 0174 2015< dahame="cS2>

    O the palost a2200f dwarfs icurenbteytn tCarm"ncita,tweselectidro90 oCarm"ncitaaargets for tbeng. bserved sith the lastCam aucky imagier (Ocopzot sal. dahame="cInR101> 2008/sa )at the 1.5  Telescopio Carlos Sáchez ft the 1Oservetioyi mdelTelde t(enerife, Spain,) The cigh-resolution imagier astCam ai squirppd sith tsnsL3CCDCndar t512 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">×dscani> 512detecteorsith tvry. ow, lectirn inoie tnd oigh- eadaurtfpecd . Itaia cafirel of siew of s21.2 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">×dscani> 21.2 rcsec dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">dsup 2d/sup tnd onicppropxmatedmpixelipze tnd ofbenciaeonsff Mherietecteorsf 0.20425 rcsec tnd o91.9 deg,srsepcteve ly. astCam adelversiinsr"eytiffeaction limited smages ,which at the 1elescopio Carlos Sáchez and mn the &dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/scani>eand whae tull_-wdethat thalfiayxmatof hapropxmated_ys0.15 rcsec F

    di>I/scani>eand wsing the alectirn iultipliciaeonsfaoel Thpecal sfrrmreexpouredsime.s wre fndfhe m3dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>0 m ratger. Oicpvryge",each iparg wa cmagesdfdureg t50 :an thotal. Te pypecal sSrerhlratiosin our observetionssfvries with phe prercnciag=cf the pbet -ual ty frace.s cose nfndfhe mreducion_ilroces":from p.2 tor the f100%oho 0.4tor the f1% For altrometryc bal brarion_ilrpose , we elso tbserved she sgloblar scluternldahref="http://pcdswebu-strasbg.fr/acgi-bin/bibobj?017/A%26A...597A..47Camp; M3>tirgets="_blank >M3−dscani>sAitk nfdahame="cInR2> 1932 1995 0170/sa ; Jódarot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R76> 01731shble dhr dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF2html">tirgets="_blank >dimgslth"athumbnail"src="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-fig2_smll .jpg" dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF2html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Fig. 2/scani>Dstribution sof spectrol type ,adsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>J/scani>-bnd magnitude ,sistrrbc ,snd poroperiotionsof the m90 observed sM-warfs argets . Te feze cf the pbis for eowMherietirsiion sogve n8bycFeendany amp; ADia odi s(dahame="cInR47> 1981di>μ/scani>e=10 .4 rcsec  rdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">dsup -1d/sup .

    hargets="DEXTER">Ope with tDEXTER 2015 2015di>J/scani>-bnd magnitude from phe sTwo-Micrn iAl_-Sy iSrvey.a(Skrutskieot sal. 2006), pectral type and mna :reerences,sistrrbc and mna :reerences,snd theriastCam abservetionseata and mexpouredsime.. Figredsdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#F2> 0di>J/scani>-bnd magnitude s,aheliocnciyc bistrrbc lnd ohotalporoperiotions cf the pbserved sample . Sectrol type sratgererom p0.0-  pho 70-  ,adsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>J/scani>erom p42 magto p1 .4 mag,sistrrbc ifrom p1.8 c.to p39.1 c.,snd poroperiotionssfrom p.203 rcsec  rdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">dsup -1d/sup to p1 .6 rcsec  rdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">dsup -1d/sup . Becaus uf the r mlose"aes l97%of our sargets hhae thotalporoperiotions catget than 510 mas rdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">dsup -1d/sup .

    di>J/scani>ebnd mfr aach ipectral teb/ipe" (se LScte F2an tlonso-Floriano"ot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R3> 2015 2004/sa ; Lawot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R83> 2008/sa ; Bergor sot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R17> 0170/sa ; Jódarot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R76> 0173 0172 0174a/sa ; Ansdmla t sal. dahame="cInR"> 2015 2015 2015 2073 0174 2073−dscani>181e(dahref="http://pcdswebu-strasbg.fr/acgi-bin/bibobj?017/A%26A...597A..47Camp; GJ+190>tirgets="_blank >GJ 190DG CVnG 067−053−dscani>161e(dahref="http://pcdswebu-strasbg.fr/acgi-bin/bibobj?017/A%26A...597A..47Camp; LP+823%E2%88%92004>tirgets="_blank >LP 823−004/sa ) F

    siv classe%"tigne > dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aT2html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Tble m2/scani>astCam atdoped phated p ll tnd ofbenciaeonsffr aach irun nghts.d/p /hiv d/iv <<< F

    < dahame="cS3> < dahame="cS4> 198" 200"/sa )ond theripixeliclordintes rn trr smages ,whether ietecnmna therihans ormat=on iqualton tith tccmapfbycfitiog thodaigneril tyans ormat=on if ourir dtwo. Tble mdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#T2> 0xmnd ddi>ymnx .tnr fezmiar sithin 1heriifferenc acmp;aignstith tslost anegtigile mvriations irom pnghtsfhodnghts.FTeir muasnsvalu= rnr f42.31 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> 0.09 mas/pixelind t42.63 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> 0.15 mas/pixelin trixelip ll tnd o91.98 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> 0.1 degtnd o91.74 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> 0.15 degtn trbenciaeonssof the petecteorsn the sdi>xmnd ddi>y nx .,srsepcteve ly. he munesraineti= rnr fhe ptardarddtunviaeonssof the peasuredmnts/ F

    di>ρ/scani>)ond tosition angles,s(dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani>)ofr aach iADSainariy. T cd thoat we measured ahe sdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>x/scani>end ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>y/scani>eosition if each iptr sithiFimcnciyoi",snd thans ormad ahe mmn eoiqualtrianliclordintes rsing the avtrometryc bplution if the plrrecsoneing. nghtsfith Fotraln. Tble mA.2eueowsthe drevious eytpblisherd valu= rf tdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>ρ/scani>,adsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani> whe mnpoch,mof obervetionsend oreerences lnd ofurmeasured varlu= rn tifferenc aepoch,. Or serros:an tdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>ρ/scani>end ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani> wre fir verdfrom phe stardarddtunviaeonsof the peasuredmnts/fn anllimages iithin 1herisrmrenghtsfnd theriitecnmna tltrometryc bplution s o tifferenc anghts?. It gneril ,the peasuredd valu= rf tdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>ρ/scani>end ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani> f the psrmreairs o tifferenc anghts? wre forstistdntiithin 13dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>σ/scani> betwen ohe mtnd oith thbllated tvalu= rrom pectdntiiork?. It tom ucases whe mual ty ff our seasuredmnts/furepas"s srevious spblisctions. T

    di>ρ/scani>end ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani> wre fatget tnd oieatdoped papypecal serros barsf 0onsarixel T

    2000 200"/sa ind tRöesrot sal. 0170) F

    −dscani>sPlogmr sOservetioy tSy iSrvey.an 1heriid- 1950s.For ahe pres if Mheriompanions we eperormad sn ultip-npochtldalysi of hhe ireelatioveeosition We morstiir d has ftiocal (unbouda)oompanion thase" oat iueow0dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>ρ/scani>end ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani> arlu= rn tifferenc aepoch,forstistdntiithin 13dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>σ/scani> ith tell_poroperiotionsond mn orstistdntibyfmor dhea t3dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>σ/scani> ith the mlroperiotionsof the m dwarfs . Oher wiss,shetorstiir d hhe mtns hysical _ysbouda.For aove tf the psixfunenfirm d tinaries, we mnliyhhad0onsaepoch, nd mfr ahe pbher s(J07349+147, whe mdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>ρ/scani>end ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani> arlu= rattifferenc aepoch,fdi" ot cl eowcuswo mdistcgulshe betwen oell_pr aompmn woroperiotions F

    3di>ρ/scani>end ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani> arlu= rf eal the detected bairs . Itaueowstahromogner"us3dstribution of the prsition angle tf Mheriompanions weich aiscorfds osisile mrale tetecteons sstsociaed hith ,aor Mxomple , ftiocal ghost:. /sp /h3nlasse%"eec2>< dahame="cS5> shble dhr dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF3html">tirgets="_blank >dimgslth"athumbnail"src="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-fig3_smll .jpg" dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF3html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Fig. 3/scani>Dsgranm f tdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani> a:. /saniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>ρ/scani>efr all the d137aeasuredd airs . Fil d fedd circl= rnr few dhysical _ysbouda airs ,tsmll tfil d fedd sualr= rnr funenfirm d telatiea airs ,tope wedd circl= rnr fknownehysical _ysbouda airs ,tnd dblu= cros s anr sotiocaleytudelatiea airs .

    hargets="DEXTER">Ope with tDEXTERdi>I/scani>eand mfr ahe p80mlysical bnd osixflikeeytpysical bairs . T measuredphe magnitude differencescf the pbisries, we mperormad snpertredssd tosic aepeadapfudtion o(PSF)tlyotoetry tsing the alyot, rsf,ind tnllptr sroutnaestn 1heriiaolyotbaickag=cf tIRAF F

    Δdi>I/scani>eaetwen oompanent ssing tPSF lyotoetry ,tnd oieastimated oitfrom phe seak ifluxratiosif the pPSF eb/iacterdomages, nd mfr aJ2345dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>161 we mperceied she sompanion cnd colul" ot ceasuredphe magnitude differences F

    0106dimgsrc="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-eq31.png >dsaniclasse%"label-eq">(1)/scani>were fdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/cub>12dscub> =ddi>F/cub>1dscub>/di>F/cub>2dscub>dscani>cnd ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/cub>13dscub> =ddi>F/cub>1dscub>/di>F/cub>3dscub>dscani>, ad ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>F/cub>1dscub>/scani>,adsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>F/cub>2dscub>dscani>cnd ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>F/cub>3dscub>dscani>rnr fhe pfluxdsof the pmages in thheeosition if eherihau promariy,whau pse od riy, ad dspure"us3ecntiriy, rsepcteve ly.

    shble dhr dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF4html">tirgets="_blank >dimgslth"athumbnail"src="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-fig4_smll .jpg" dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF4html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Fig. 4/scani>Dsgranm f tdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">Δdi>I/scani>ea:. /saniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>ρ/scani>ep to 88.. rcsec tfr ahe ppysical bairs . Colfu ald dsymbolpomd is aa in tFig. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#F3">3di>σ/scani> etecteonsfimite for tromarii= rn 1heriagnitude datger adsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I< 11dscani> mag,s1 magfdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">≤ di>I<dscani> 11 mag,snd ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I ≥dscani> 11 mag,srsepcteve ly.

    hargets="DEXTER">Ope with tDEXTER 4di>I/scani>eand mnd mndular separations sf Mheriompanions . Mos if Mhermsayeof tezmiar sbrghtsaes s(dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">Δdi>I ≈ .0-−1.1dscani> mag)ond tayeolocted ot lngular separations shmllerothan 52.5 rcsec FFigredsdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#F4> 4di>I/scani>eagnitude ,srom phich aweeecectidrorrr sang e mptr comvryog tdiferenc aepctrol type sro orsainecafreresentetioveeuasnsontrrst 3crvey For aach itars wieastimated ohe detecteon iimitefa cafiudtion of eherindular separations astheree ime.s he stardarddtunviaeonsof the pnumberof pcouds in then-rixel-itd mannuliscnciye to 1heriirgets. Teisdetecteon iimitefwa comnvryerdom o tdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">Δdi>I/scani>esing the alak ifluxrarlu=tf the psars.Fhe mayxmaummagnitude differencescn the detecteon if ppoisile mompanions it lngular separations sbetwen o.2 tnd m10- rcsec tvries wrom p3ro o4 mag nd mfom p5ro o7 mag ntseparations satget than 52 rcsec ,wdepe ing. ft he fbrghtsaes sf the promariysiars.Fhe mimiteeg tagnitude df our survey.as aaburtfdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I ≈ 17dscani> mag,snd oieawre flle mo mdeecte al asur es ibrghtse than 5hei :imitefa lngular separations sgrease than 53 rcsec FTeisdipleie:ahat intseparations satget than 53 rcsec ,whe detecteon if pompanions isr"lir shan 5M8dwarfs iiscompletedap to 84- c.,shich alrrecsoneis o tho dntifresample ,snd theriitecteon if pompanions isr"lir shan 5M9dwarfs iiscompletedap to 825 c.,shich aissn"must af our sumple .

    < dahame="cS"> < dahame="cS7> 2001−dscani>127.For ahe p30tew dinaries, wnd co mrr sknowledge,the e flr eo"other sreerences co minariety.

    1976 2015 2015 2015 2073−dscani>127).Mhe creuailng. 29tayeorirs with teotrevious sinarietysreerences co mrr sknowledge.

    < dahame="cS8> ±dscani> 2. % lbytstsumng. l Poitsonian3dstribution of the perros:. Nlvryhe les ltefmut ano lbeatakenfn cafrel bM-warfs ultiplecity fraction tbecaus uf the eslection oias-tf the pbserved sample :we dei" ot cinclui tmany stasifhat iwre frevious eytbserved sn tszmiar ssudeis surlhat ihad0knownevisal companions it lls sthen 5. rcsec F

    1 2004/sa ; Lafencièreot sal. dahame="cInR81> 200"/sa ; Lawot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R83> 2008/sa ; Bergor sot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R17> 0170/sa ; Janso ot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R70> 0172 0174a/sa ; Jódarot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R76> 0173 2015 2015±dscani> 1.4% F

    −dscani>M5dwarfs anr fknowneithin 17 c. nd mhat ihe ir destityrn 1heriolur svcitnityrn,forstrrbs. Teisdhinr sample sisdomplo"s sf t925dwarfs aith tspctrol type srbetwen o0.0- V nd mM50- V of swich a83ihae tlnpanions i(eiher srom pastCam atd ofher siork?)fndfhe mrtgererom p.2 to m.0- rcsec . Teisdhans ltes rn hodailose" ultiplecity fraction tf M19.5 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> 2.3%, hich aissorstistdntiithin 1erros bar hith the s13.6dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>27%fraction ssbtained hfr a dwarfs in"must aurvey.:a(Tble mdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#T1">1 4.8/sa ind tdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#S15> 4.9shble dhr dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF5html">tirgets="_blank >dimgslth"athumbnail"src="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-fig5_smll .jpg" dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF5html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Fig. 5/scani>Mltiplicity fraction fa cafiudtion of epectral type arom p0.0- pho 50- Vfndfhe mvlumeelimited sample sith aeparationssfrom p.2 to m.0- rcsec . Erros bar hnr fPoitsonian. Horizntralsdaherd ad ddoted hlnaestnr fhe pglobalsultiplecity fraction tad theridsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> 2dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>σ/scani> arlu= F

    hargets="DEXTER">Ope with tDEXTER< dahame="cS9> di>I−di>J/scani>ecolfu rnd ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>rnbolutiriagnitude sfa cafiudtion of epectral type arr a dwarfs irom pTble m3fndfKirkpririckot sal. (dahame="cInR77> 1994di>I/scani>eagnitude df ohe promariy, nd motained hye &dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/scani>eagnitude df ohe pse od riy rom pturmeasured vdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">Δdi>I/scani>. W mir verdfherinbolutiridsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>ragnitude sfthrurgh he piftrrbc amodulu:and dinferrd hhe tspctrol type srf the pse od ries with phe pdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>-pectral type aelationsrf tKirkpririckot sal. (1994) F

    di>J/scani>-bnd magnitude finvluvdsthe dontrrbution of eal the dompanent sn 1heriostems FIt he s ucases wwesbtained hye &dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/scani>eagnitude df ohe psstemsfrom phe sdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I−di>J/scani>ecolfu rnd dhe pglobalsspctrol type srf the pairs wrom phe sltedatiue AUing the adsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/scani>eagnitude dnd ofurmeasured vdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">Δdi>I/scani> lhetormluid phe pmniv idual dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/scani>eagnitude We molculated the pmniv idual dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>rnbolutiriagnitude sfbytspleyng the aiftrrbc amodulu:, nd mstimated oiniv idual spctrol type srrom phe sdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>-pectral type aelations F

    di>M/cub>di>J/scub>dscani>-pectral type aelations FTei :reationsrwa cbtained hfom pn polynomoal fitising tang e mptr cith pwell-etecnmna tspctrol type srbetwen o0.  pnd mM6 V,faratllacicl istrrbc :, nd m2MASSsdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>J/scani>-bnd mlyotoetry trom phe sCarm"ncitaapmple ,snd thasthe dorma: dahame="c> dimgsrc="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-eq43.png >dsaniclasse%"label-eq">(2)/scani>were fdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>a/scani>e=1.0-78 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> 0.007 mag,adsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>b/scani>e=1.0265 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> .2038 magrnd ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>c/scani>e=15.895 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> .2044 mag,snd dSpTtn dictedsthe pnumr vcal spctrol teb/ipe" ithin 1heriMratger.

    shble dhr dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF6html">tirgets="_blank >dimgslth"athumbnail"src="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-fig6_smll .jpg" dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF6html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Fig. 6/scani>Projcted baysical beparations dstribution of the pinaries, ndfhe mvlumeelimited sample . Daherd bar hreresentepturminaries . Vcnticalsdaherd lnaestarikfhe m90%tompletedaes aimite ,snd theriiahe-doted hcrveyhreresentesthe dompaetedaes aa cafiudtion of eheriprojcted baysical beparations.

    hargets="DEXTER">Ope with tDEXTERdi>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>-pectral type aelations,phe pmniv idual dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/scani>eagnitude ,snd theriiftrrbc amodulu:.Mhe sriupdted oistrrbc ae fgve n8in0Tble mA.1. Gve n8te ciowpnumberof pcose" bisries,wot cesoluvd sn trr sarvey.a(dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">~dscani>1 % lse LScte Fdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#S14> 4.8/sa ),twesdofot cexectrtmany dditional audeloluvd scoponent F

    dsub>1dscub>/scani>snd dSpTdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">dsub>2dscub>dscani>cclume s whe mspctrol type srindicted hith acaptal p“M” com urom phe sltedatiue ,snd oith aiowericasep“m” reerethoour sstimated ospctrol type s.F

    5di>χ/cup>2dscup toest. Wth urtfheriM1sontrrbution ,theriiftribution oissorstistdntiithicafilatadstribution oith patenfirenti levelmo e96%.F

    −dscani>65%)ond vry. iowpmssemptr cnd dbrownewarfs i(9dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>15%) FTei :agres with phe pgneril eytscceptd oiecreasng thencdtf Mho dultiplecity fraction tith piecreasng tmssemf ohe promarii= r(Tble mdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#T1">1< dahame="cS10> di>ρ/scani>)on hodprojcted baysical beparations s(dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>s/scani>)ob tsing the asmll -ngle tppropxmateons dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">rrbdi>ρ ≈ di>ρ/scani>. Hnces,sdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>s ≈ di>ρd/scani>. Te pistrrbc ifdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>d/scani>ecom urom paratllaxporsayotoetry tn, ndfScte Fdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#S9> 4.3siv classe%"tigne > dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aT3html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Tble m3/scani>Trgetssmembersof spi lar skna ateocagroups.

    6di>s/scani>sitedrvglmbetwen o2.6 nd m29.5 au. W estimated ohe s tarlu= ra thase" eparations satphich aweeae flle mo mdeecte ompanions itnt90%tf the pumple .

    −dscani>7.5 au. Teisdissorstistdntiithiche mvrlu= rf edsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>10 ausfruda b tJódarot sal. (dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R76> 0173−dscani>M4dwarfs ,wacdtf Mdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">~dscani>6 ausfruda b tJanso ot sal. (0174)ofr aM3dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>M8dwarfs iacdtWard-Dungeot sal. (dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R14"> 2015−dscani>M6dwarfs . Howevry,ohe s tarlu= rar ciowerihan 5hese" fruda fr aSun-likepptr c(Duquennoysamp; AMryr adahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R45> 1991 0170/sa )ond mor dszmiar so those" fruda fr altiactoolewarfs i(4dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>6  ausfr aM8.0dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>L0.5, Cose" t sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R35> 2003−dscani>4 ausfr aM7.0dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>L8.0, Bouyot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R22> 2003 2008/sa ) F

    ±dscani> 2. % lhich aissiowerihan 5heefraction tir verdfndfScte Fdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#S8> 4.06< dahame="cS11> di>I/scani>eand . T mrr sknowledge,the e fi co"opblisherd mass-lumngosetysreationsrepleoyng theiseand . e morlectidrodyamecal bmasss, nd ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/scani>-bnd magnitude if ealevenaiow-mssemptr crom pdiferenc aiork?c(Delfos sot sal. 2000; Hncry dahame="cInR66> 2004/sa ; Reidot sal. dahame="cInR114> 2004/sa ; Tokovilng dahame="cInR136> 2008/sa ) nd motained hanedsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>-dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">ℳdscani>sreationsrsing taparatbolocafistf Mho dorma: dahame="cFD3> dimgsrc="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-eq57.png >dsaniclasse%"label-eq">(3)/scani>were fdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">ℳdscani>sisthe peas ldsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>risthe pnbolutiridsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>I/scani>-bnd magnitude ldsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>a/scani>e=1.0-05 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> .2002 agndsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">dsup>-2dscup ,adsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>b/scani>e=1dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>0.222 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> .2037 agndsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">dsup>-1dscup ,and ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>c/scani>e=112035 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> .2180 FTei :reationsri :valia fr auail-sequenceatars:an the sdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>ritedrvglmbetwen o6 nd m14 mag,shich alrrecsoneis o tdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">~dscani>M0dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>M8ospctrol type s.FFigredsdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#F7">"/sa iueowsthe ddataptakenfrom phe sltedatiue ,she domrecsoneing. bet afis,snd theriormraeiso oith aBT-Settl evlution riy modelsrrom phe sLyo ogroup (Bratferot sal. dahame="cInR7> 20156shble dhr dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF7html">tirgets="_blank >dimgslth"athumbnail"src="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-fig7_smll .jpg" dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF7html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Fig. 7/scani>Mssemdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">ℳdscani>sa:. Abolutiriagnitude sdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>. Blu=tosic streresentephe ddyamecal bmasss, nd dnbolutiriagnitude sftakenfrom phe sltedatiue .Mhe credioluid lnae nd dshadowd snreatreresentephe dbet -fistdsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> 3 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>σ/scani>. Diferenc adaherd lnaestistplayphe dBT-Settl evlution riy modelsratp20 Ma,s10 Ma,s30 Ma,s1 Ga,snd t5 Ga F

    hargets="DEXTER">Ope with tDEXTER 3~dscani>30 Ma,sn, ndferrd hrom paig. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#F7">"/sa .For aiars:ayounet than 530 Ma,sho duas -lumngosetysreationsrtromngiyhdepe isto 1heriag . W esearchd hfr ayouneatars:an trr sample sbymorlecting. radoal velociti= rrom phe sltedatiue (Cabllerooot sal. wn tresp.)ond tenmluing. UVW Galaciocnciyc bcanceavelociti= rn, ndfMones rt sal. (dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R96> 2001di>U/scani>end ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>V/scani> aelocitypcoponent sn tiirar ansr"ahe pboudaries, hat idelnaetedthe dyoune-disctospuationsr(Mones rt sal. dahame="cInR98> 20163di>I−di>J/scani>ecolfu rf syouneatars:and mfrel otars:adofot cueow0tignieiuaesdifferences i(se LBihinect sal. dahame="cInR19> 0170/sa ; Peña-Ramírezct sal. dahame="cInR102> 2016di>I/scani>eagnitude tf eherseatars:aa csxplaned hn tScte Fdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#S9> 4.3di>M/cub>di>I/scub>dscani>rreationsrwth acnfirentc . or ahe seoalculateins we entsumrdfherines igve n8in0Tble mdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#T3">3di>I−di>J/scani>ecolfu rnd dhe pBT-Settl evlution riy modelsrrom phe sLyo ogroup (Bratferot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R7> 2015di>I/scani>eagnitude tad tpratllacicl istrrbc :hfr adsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>β/scani> Pic, Columba/Crienatad tLoal bAtsociaeonstmembers.

    di>I/scani>eagnitude t(Scte Fdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#S9> 4.3~dscani>.0-7 dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>M/cub>⊙dscub>dscani>).Mhe cfliyhexceptonsri :ho dunenfirm d tompanionsif MJ04352dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>161 weich ahs-tndtabolutiriagnitude faitedrthan 514 mag,snd oieawre funlle mo mdtecnmna oitstmssemithiche mmeh udcsxplaned hb for F

    shble dhr dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF8html">tirgets="_blank >dimgslth"athumbnail"src="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-fig8_smll .jpg" dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF8html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Fig. 8/scani>di>Toptprnel:tmssematiosidstribution of tturminaries . Emptysnd mdaherd bar hhparati sho duas matiosidstribution of t0.0-dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>M3.5mnd mM40-dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>M5.5dwarfs . di>Bottm parnel:tmssematiosif the pairs wa:. pectral type af the paomariy.Mhe credidaherd lnaehreresentesthe dmssematiosiompaetedaes aimite .Mhe ctardarddterros f the peasndmssematiosii :.203rnd dhe perros barii :dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">±dscani> .25sn tsectral type .

    hargets="DEXTER">Ope with tDEXTER< dahame="cS12> 8/sa iueowsthe dmssematiosi(dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">ℳdsub>2dscub>/ ℳdsub>1dscub>/scani>) hstroranm f tturminaries cin0Tble mA.5.Mheisdglobalsdstribution oslghts_ysincreas= ro arfis igh-er uassmatios, nd thastitstmsxmaummaboe t0.8.Mhe ctlghts_ysiowerinumberof paual -mssemrirs with tuassmatios, nsr"aunityrn,fot cuignieiuaesdnd colul" betelatiea o tho deffctesf the eelducion_ilroces"tsing the abrghtset arixel weich articeiuil _yssharpe sthe dPSFaf the paomariywith trsepcte o tho dPSFaf the pse od riy, ad day ilroduc tafiowerifluxratiosihan 5exectrea.Mhes adstribution oi :aso taffcted sbytur syestitv ityrimite Weeilesn tsectral type isr"lir shan 5M3.5m(i. Fmor duassve stars:)tur syearch f pompanions iiscompletedafr auassmatios, grease than 50.3 wn tlase tsectral type i(i. Fls stuassve stars:)the psearch iscompletedafr auassmatios, grease than 50.3dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>0.60 F

    −dscani>0.9.For ahe plastry,ohe adstribution oincreas= ro arfis igh-er atios,. Ascsxplaned hb for ,theisemghtssbetduethoour sbserveaional aias-.

    8/sa weich areresentesthe dpectral type af the paomariypvrsiusthe dmssematios.For alase tsectral type ,tur sdtected binaries, aso tteeioo thae tszmiar smasss,.Mhes aay ibetduethoohe plackof spestitv ityrhooioweriuassmatios, atalase tsectral type . Te pistribution oiffereemithiche mmor dhomogneeus suas matiosidstribution sofserved sb tJanso ot sal. (dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R70> 01729≥dscani>0.8)tnr ffrud mntsemlleroteparations . Mmvryovry,ohe siowerihaetmssemf ohe promariy,ohe sigh-er he duas matiosind therioose"s he psemi-ayjor sxm satphich aompanions itr ffrud m(Jódarot sal. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R76> 0173 0172 0170/sa )ond Janso ot sal. (0174) weiosinvstimgtiea he duas matiosin lltget teparations ,aay isxplaneohe adsferencescith tur srselts.fneohe auas matiosidstribution . Howevry,oMonessCarl tsimlateins mf oSun-likepptr cnd mM-warfs urvey.:arom pDuquennoysamp; AMryr a(dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R45> 1991 0170/sa ), ad dFiscer samp; AMrcsyM(dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R46> 1992/sa )ond Janso ot sal. (dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#R70> 0172 0171 0173shble dhr dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF9html">tirgets="_blank >dimgslth"athumbnail"src="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-fig9_smll .jpg" dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF9html">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Fig. 9/scani>Mssematiosia:. projcted baysical beparations. Colur snd dsymboloold fi cn, ndfFig. dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#F3">3hargets="DEXTER">Ope with tDEXTER< dahame="cS13> 4.4−dscani>083S weich art pormad obyts pectroscopic binariycplu:andhinr seloluvd scoponent , nd mJ23293+414S,sfr ahich aweseloluvd she mhereetompanent sf the postems FIt dditiona,the p“hrpless” J08082+211sad oJ16654dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">−dscani>083S belog thodaihierarchcal bualdrupe mnd mquintulestystems, rsepcteve ly,tithiche mfru h pad mfrfh pompanent soutsdusdhe sirel of siew of sastCam a(Scte Fdahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.html"#S15> 4.9di>σ/scani> ith trsepcte o torstrrbsmvrlu= rf edsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>ρ/scani>end ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani>end dire forstistdntiithicanmorbtal ptrajcteory lhetorstiir d hhat ihe sorbtal potionsif the pairsrwa cdtected .oBecaus uf the eltgetpuneerainetes, wth uvrietions.if edsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>ρ/scani>end ddsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>θ/scani>ef the pairs wJ05333+448,MJ08066+558, nd mJ20407+199iim" ithin 13dsaniclasse%"sipletmasth">di>σ/scani> nd therr for theryadofot cullfilour scrtedaona,tbrtfherycueow0aprescible mvrietionsifhat iayeorrobbleytelatiea o tho dorbtal potions. Howevry,ohe imaesbns lnaehn,fot clog tnsugh no mpojidusda rescis ustimatedtf the pbrbtal paratmtecn sf the postemss.

    4 70/sa F

    shble dhr dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF0.1tml">tirgets="_blank >dimgslth"athumbnail"src="/lrticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aa29056-16.-fig10_smll .jpg" dahref="h/rticles/aa/aull_html/2017/01/aa29056-16/aF0.1tml">tirgets="_blank >dsaniclasse%"bold">Fig. 70/scani>Orbtal pvrietions f the pairsrJ12332+090 rom pturmastCam adata WTe pstCerisktariksthe dposetonstf the paomariy.MFve sf the peghtssepoch,fnr muabelld .

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dah017/086/377343me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8222lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soo5ApJS..216....7B/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa267-0049/216/1/7me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8223lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssr, A. J.tiKirkpa ui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so03ApJ...586..512B/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/346263me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8224lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssr, A. J.tiRedd,iI. N tiSiegair, N tiurvey.:al07,,hamtobetwen o2.Plane s V, 427sii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheiisiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8225lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so07ApJ...667..520C/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/520873me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8226lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssswww.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs soo0/06 be13986-09 be13986-09teparaa[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs soo0/06 be13986-09 be13986-09teparaa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs soo0/06 be13986-09 be13986-09teparaa[EDPlS"tignes]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8227lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssIui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so09Nh 0..462..891C/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/038/nh 0.208679aa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"inset >www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). 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A.tiurvey.:ali2,dApJ, 757dsii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >ui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs ali2ApJ...757..100D/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/757/1h010me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8238lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1999A&A...344..897D/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8239lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssefa,sS.,dC rolo, E.tiGrattoa,-R tiurvey.:ali1,-A ly,tA, 533, A90sii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs soo1/09 be17191-1" be17191-1"teparaa[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs soo1/09 be17191-1" be17191-1"teparaa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs soo1/09 be17191-1" be17191-1"teparaa[EDPlS"tignes]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##824905sii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs ali2AJ....1 4...64D/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/1 4/2/64me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8240lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soo4ApJ...784..156D/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/784/2/156me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8242lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so00A&A...363..991D/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8243lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soo3ARA A..51..269D/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/146/anaurev-an MC-081710-102602me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8244lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1991A&A...2 d..485D/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8245lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1992ApJ...396..178F/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/171708me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8246lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so09AJ....137..402G/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/137/1h402me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8249lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1979A&A....77..214G/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##825905sii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soo0Ap.....53..123G/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/007/s10511-oo0-9105-1me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8252lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soo6MNRAS.457.2173G/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/093/mnras/stw049aa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8253lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1996AJ....111..365G/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/117789aa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8254lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so02AJ....123.3356G/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/340465me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8255lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so03AJ....126.2048G/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/378365me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8257lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so06AJ....132..161G/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/504637me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8258lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssswww.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs soo0/13 be13530-09 be13530-09teparaa[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs soo0/13 be13530-09 be13530-09teparaa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs soo0/13 be13530-09 be13530-09teparaa[EDPlS"tignes]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8259lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssswww.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so03/14/id3069/id3069teparaa[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so03/14/id3069/id3069teparaa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs 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sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/1 6/3/56me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8294lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssswww.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so06/47sid6120-06/id6120-06teparaa[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so06/47sid6120-06/id6120-06teparaa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so06/47sid6120-06/id6120-06teparaa[EDPlS"tignes]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of 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sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8298lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so01AJ....121.1752M/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/319383me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##8299lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so14AJ....147...20N/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/1 7/1/20me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82100rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so08SPIE.7l14E..47O/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82101rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssswww.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so16/02/aa27425-15/aa27425-15teparaa[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so16/02/aa27425-15/aa27425-15teparaa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so16/02/aa27425-15/aa27425-15teparaa[EDPlS"tignes]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82102rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1984ApJ...282..214P/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/162194me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82103rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soo0ApJS..190....1R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa267-2909/190/1/1me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"inset >epjst.epj> dahrs matiosepjstsabs so10/10sepjst190001sepjst190001teparaa[EDPlS"tignes]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82106lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soo1ApJ...738...60R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/738/1/60me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82107lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssswww.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so13/05/aa21631-13 be21631-13teparaa[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so13/05/aa21631-13 be21631-13teparaa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so13/05/aa21631-13 be21631-13teparaa[EDPlS"tignes]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82108lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so09ApJ...705.1416R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/705/2/1416me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82109lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soi2AJ....143...93R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/1 3/4/93me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82110rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so02AJ....123.2806R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/339699la[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82111rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1997AJ....113.2246R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/118436me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82112rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1995AJ....1117/838R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/117655me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82113rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so04AJ....12d..463R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/421374me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82114rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so08AJ....135..580R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/135/2/580me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82115lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soo0AJ....140..897R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/140/3/897me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82116rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs ali4AJ....147...85R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/147/4/85me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82117lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so06AJ....132..866R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/505632me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/18rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soo0AJ....139.2440R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/139/6/2440me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/19lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so05ApJ...634..625R/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/491669la[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82120rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so07AJ....133.1658S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/5/1979la[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82121rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1995AN....3i6..125S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/002/asna.2103i60210me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/22rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so11AN....332..508S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/002/asna.2oo011553me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82123rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soi3MNRAS.434.2803S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/093/mnras/stt1140me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/24rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssswww.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so05/40sid3290505/aa3290505teparaa[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so05/40sid3290505/aa3290505teparaa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so05/40sid3290505/aa3290505teparaa[EDPlS"tignes]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82125lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs ali5ApJ...8i3...75S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/8i3/1/75me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82126rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs soo0ApJ...7i6.1522S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/7i6/2/1522me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/27lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so05ApJ...621.1023S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/427743me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82128rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs ali5ApJ...799..169S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/799/2/169la[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82129lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1993AJ....105t.226S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/116422me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/30rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssss 2md, K sA.:A.:1977, AJ, 82, 9sii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >ui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1977AJ.....82..745S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/086/112/19la[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/31rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so09AJ....137.4547S/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/137/6/4547la[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/32rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so11O&T....78...20T/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82134rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs 1986SPIE..627..733T/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/117/12.968154me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82135lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so08MNRAS.389..925T/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/111/j.1365-2966.2008.13613.xme[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82136rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so11AJ....141...52T/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/141/2/52me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/37lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs ali5AJ....150...50T/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa29056256/150/2/50me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/38rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssswww.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so07/41/aa8357-07/aa8357-07teparaa[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so07/41/aa8357-07/aa8357-07teparaa[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >www.a//ap> dahrs matiosidsabs so07/41/aa8357-07/aa8357-07teparaa[EDPlS"tignes]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82140rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs ali4ApJ...783....4W/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/783/1/4me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82141rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs ali4ApJ...791..111W/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/791/2/111rc[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82142rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so15ApJ...806..248W/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiing ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/806/2/248rc[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82143rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs ali5ApJ...8i3..130W/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiing ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/088aa2905637X/813/2/130me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82/44rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs ali6AJ....152...24W/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah0173847aa29056256/152/1/24me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82145lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs so15MNRAS.449.2618W/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/093/mnras/stv384me[C--esRe ]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82146rcsii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssui.adsabs.ha290rd. :a/#abs al04ARA A..42..685Z/abs> 20 la[NASA ADS]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"insest >doi> dah017/146/annurev.ae%"e.42.053102.134111rc[C--esRe ]tainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss= itng ions sltlink_sse%"basse%"inset >www.ams> dahmathscinet-s sitem?mr=2069343me[MathSciNet]tainsiew of ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiew of sssssssssst2.3%cneche &Z3988atiitltrolasii= itntheii= itntheew of ssssssssssteagulasii= itntheii= itsii= itntheii= itntheii= itntheii= itng asse%"##82147lasii= itntheii= itntheew o(01;rcsetext)sii= itntheii= itntheeainsiew of sssssssssssssssssssss siiTable 1teagulasec

    Stnllrf multiplicity f 20 ions. Table 2teagulasec

    Fae%Cam adopted plate scale o2.ortigt0tion for each run night. Table 3teagulasec

    Tons s membersonalstnllrf kinematic groups. Table 4teagulasec

    Systnms with measurable orbital motion. Table 5teagulasec

    Ae%"emetric propes mesonalpreviously known imaging comgulions/atst2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>ρ< 5teagulaso1;arcsec not resolve2.or detected in our data. Table 6teagulasec

    Known spect--ecopic binarmesoi1;rcseobse29ed sample. Fig. 1teagulasec

    Sele0 iononalimagesonalmultiple systnms idigtified by us with Fae%Cam. North is up o2.east is left. Tcseni>uppes row scale is t2.3%cneche &simple-mathla20 ×:alteagulaso1;arcsect2.3%cneche &simple-mathlansup>2teaup>teagula,;rcatsnaltcseni>lowes row 4so1;t2.3%cneche &simple-mathla×teagulaso1;4so1;arcsect2.3%cneche &simple-mathlansup>2teaup>teagula.eni>Imagesoatsrcsetop wesseobtained with rcseshifti ly,tsadd mode, while tcseni>bottomlimagesowesseobtained with rcseluckylimage mode. Tcseni>bottomlrightlimage (J17340+446) is 3%cexamlpesnaltcseso-cptr d falseltriple effe0 .en/pasn/tdasn/trasntr>ntd nolagul="2lang asse%"inset >dexter.sse%"tignes> dahrpplet.php?pdf_id=1 ly,tDOI=017/051aa29056361 ali629056a ions sltDEXTER">Open with DEXTERsec ntd nolagul="2lcneche &in-tx lang asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#F1rc01;rcsetextsec Fig. 2teagulasec

    Die%"ibutions/nalspect-al type, t2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>Jteagula-b o2.magnitude, die%agne, o2.propes motionsnaltcse490eobse29ed M-dwarf ions ss. Tcsesizesonaltcsebins followltcsedefinitions/given by Freedman/ ly,tsDiaconis (ng tittroInR47rcsec ng asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#R47rc1981sec ). Tcselowest gulel doesonot dieplayiBarnards17;slstar, with t2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>μteagula = 0174so1;arcsecso1;at2.3%cneche &simple-mathlansup>-1teaup>teagula.n/pasn/tdasn/trasntr>ntd nolagul="2lang asse%"inset >dexter.sse%"tignes> dahrpplet.php?pdf_id=2 ly,tDOI=017/051aa29056361 ali629056a ions sltDEXTER">Open with DEXTERsec ntd nolagul="2lcneche &in-tx lang asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#F2rc01;rcsetextsec Fig. 3teagulasec

    Diagramonalt2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>θteagula vs. t2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>ρteagula for all;rcse137 measured pairs. Fitr d red ciratio assenew physicptry bound pairs, small fitr d red squasso asseunconfirm d related pairs, open red ciratio asseknown physicptry bound pairs, o2.blue c--esio asseopticptry unrelated pairs.n/pasn/tdasn/trasntr>ntd nolagul="2lang asse%"inset >dexter.sse%"tignes> dahrpplet.php?pdf_id=3 ly,tDOI=017/051aa29056361 ali629056a ions sltDEXTER">Open with DEXTERsec ntd nolagul="2lcneche &in-tx lang asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#F3rc01;rcsetextsec Fig. 4teagulasec

    Diagramonalt2.3%cneche &simple-mathlaΔIteagula vs. t2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>ρteagula up to 8.5so1;arcsec for rcsephysicpt pairs. Colour o2.symbol node is asoi1;Fig. ng asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#F3rc3sec . Solid, dashed, o2.dotted linesoi1dicpte tcse3t2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>σteagula detectionslimits for primarmesoi1;rcsemagnitude rangeso<2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>I< 1lteagulaso1;mag, 10so1;maglt2.3%cneche &simple-mathla≤ ni>I<teagulaso1;11so1;mag, o2.<2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>I ≥teagulaso1;11so1;mag, ssopectively.n/pasn/tdasn/trasntr>ntd nolagul="2lang asse%"inset >dexter.sse%"tignes> dahrpplet.php?pdf_id=4 ly,tDOI=017/051aa29056361 ali629056a ions sltDEXTER">Open with DEXTERsec ntd nolagul="2lcneche &in-tx lang asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#F4rc01;rcsetextsec Fig. 5teagulasec

    Multiplicity f 20 ion asoa functionsnalspect-al type f om M0.0 V to M5.0 V i1;rcsevolume-limited sample with separations/f om 0.2 to 5.0so1;arcsec. Error baro assePoissonian.iHorizontal dashed o2.dotted linesoassercseglobal multiplicity f 20 ion ao2.tcsen2.3%cneche &simple-mathla±teagulaso1;2t2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>σteagula values.en/pasn/tdasn/trasntr>ntd nolagul="2lang asse%"inset >dexter.sse%"tignes> dahrpplet.php?pdf_id=5 ly,tDOI=017/051aa29056361 ali629056a ions sltDEXTER">Open with DEXTERsec ntd nolagul="2lcneche &in-tx lang asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#F5rc01;rcsetextsec Fig. 6teagulasec

    Projected physicpt separation die%"ibutiononaltcsebinarmesoi1;rcsevolume-limited sample. Dashed baro repssoent our binarmes.sVerticpt dashed linesomark;rcse90% comgletenessslimits, ao2.tcsedash-dotted curve repssoents.tcsecomgletenesssasoa functionsnalrcseprojected physicpt separation.n/pasn/tdasn/trasntr>ntd nolagul="2lang asse%"inset >dexter.sse%"tignes> dahrpplet.php?pdf_id=6 ly,tDOI=017/051aa29056361 ali629056a ions sltDEXTER">Open with DEXTERsec ntd nolagul="2lcneche &in-tx lang asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#F6rc01;rcsetextsec Fig. 7teagulasec

    Mchelt2.3%cneche &simple-mathlaℳteagula vs. Absolutsemagnitude t2.3%cneche &simple-mathlani>Mtsub>Iteaub>σteagula. Different dashed linesodieplayitcseBT-Settl evolutionary modelsoats20so1;Ma, 100so1;Ma, 300so1;Ma, 1so1;Ga, ao2.5so1;Ga.en/pasn/tdasn/trasntr>ntd nolagul="2lang asse%"inset >dexter.sse%"tignes> dahrpplet.php?pdf_id=7 ly,tDOI=017/051aa29056361 ali629056a ions sltDEXTER">Open with DEXTERsec ntd nolagul="2lcneche &in-tx lang asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#F7rc01;rcsetextsec Fig. 8teagulasec

    ni>Top gulel: maes ratio die%"ibutiononalour binarmes.sEmpty o2.dashed baro separate;rcsemaes ratio die%"ibutiononalM0.0t2.3%cneche &simple-mathla−teagulaM3.5 o2.M4.0t2.3%cneche &simple-mathla−teagulaM5.5 dwarfs.eni>Bottomlgulel: maes ratio nalrcsepairs vs. spect-al type nalrcseprimary. Tcsered dashed line repssoents.tcsemaes ratio comgletenessslimits. Tcsest//aprd error nalrcseme3%cmaes ratio is 0.03 ao2.tcseerror bar is t2.3%cneche &simple-mathla±teagulaso1;0.5 in spect-al type.n/pasn/tdasn/trasntr>ntd nolagul="2lang asse%"inset >dexter.sse%"tignes> dahrpplet.php?pdf_id=8 ly,tDOI=017/051aa29056361 ali629056a ions sltDEXTER">Open with DEXTERsec ntd nolagul="2lcneche &in-tx lang asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#F8rc01;rcsetextsec Fig. 9teagulasec

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    Orbital varmationsnalrcsepair J12332+090 f om our Fae%Cam data. Tcseae%eriskomarks.tcsepositionsnalrcseprimary. Five nalrcseeightlepochsoasselabetr d.n/pasn/tdasn/trasntr>ntd nolagul="2lang asse%"inset >dexter.sse%"tignes> dahrpplet.php?pdf_id=10 ly,tDOI=017/051aa29056361 ali629056a ions sltDEXTER">Open with DEXTERsec ntd nolagul="2lcneche &in-tx lang asse%"hrs matiosidsfull_epar so17aa1/aa29056-16/aa29056-16tepar#F10me01;rcsetextsec s s ii= Current usage metricsAbout rs mati metricsReturn to rs mati s s ss ss

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