EDP Sciences
Free Access
Issue
A&A
Volume 597, January 2017
Article Number A79
Number of page(s) 25
Section Catalogs and data
DOI https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201527999
Published online 05 January 2017

© ESO, 2017

1. Introduction

Since the discovery of the first quasar by Schmidt (1963), each generation of spectroscopic surveys has enlarged the number of known quasars by roughly an order of magnitude: the Bright Quasar Survey (Schmidt & Green 1983) reached the 100 discoveries milestone, followed by the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS; Hewett et al. 1995) and its 1000 objects, then the ~25 000 quasars from the 2dF Quasar Redshift Survey (2QZ; Croom et al. 2004), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; York et al. 2000) with over 100 000 new quasars (Schneider et al. 2010). Many other surveys have also contributed to increase the number of known quasars (e.g. Osmer & Smith 1980; Boyle et al. 1988; Storrie-Lombardi et al. 1996). Most of these objects have redshifts of z < 2. The main goal of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS; Dawson et al. 2013), the main dark time survey of the third stage of the SDSS (SDSS-III; Eisenstein et al. 2011), is to detect the characteristic scale imprinted by baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the early universe from the spatial distribution of both luminous red galaxies at z ~ 0.7 (Anderson et al. 2012, 2014; Alam et al. 2016) and H i absorption lines in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z ~ 2.5 (Busca et al. 2013; Slosar et al. 2013; Delubac et al. 2015). In order to achieve this goal, the quasar survey of the BOSS was designed to discover at least 15 quasars per square degree with 2.15 ≤ z ≤ 3.5 over ~10 000 deg2 (Ross et al. 2012). The final SDSS-I/II quasar catalog of Schneider et al. (2010) contained ~19 000 quasars with z > 2.15. In this paper we report on the final quasar catalog from SDSS-III, which reaches a new milestone by containing 184 101 quasars at z ≥ 2.15, 167 742 of which are new discoveries.

This paper presents the final SDSS-III/BOSS quasar catalog, denoted DR12Q, that compiles all the spectroscopically confirmed quasars identified in the course of the SDSS-III/BOSS survey and released as part of the SDSS twelfth data release (Alam et al. 2015). The bulk of the quasars contained in DR12Q come from the main SDSS-III/BOSS quasar target selection (Ross et al. 2012). The rest of the quasars were observed by SDSS-III/BOSS ancillary programs (46 574 quasars not targeted by the SDSS-III/BOSS main quasar survey; see Dawson et al. 2013; Ahn et al. 2014; Alam et al. 2015), and the Sloan Extended Quasar, ELG and LRG Survey (SEQUELS) that is the SDSS-IV/eBOSS pilot survey (20 133 quasars not targeted by the SDSS-III/BOSS main quasar survey; Dawson et al. 2016; Myers et al. 2015). In addition, we catalog quasars that are serendipitously targeted as part of the SDSS-III/BOSS galaxy surveys. DR12Q contains 297 301 unique quasars, 184 101 having z > 2.15, over an area of 9376 deg2. Note that this catalog does not include all the previously known SDSS quasars but only the ones that were re-observed by the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. Out of 105 783 quasars listed in DR7Q (Schneider et al. 2010), 80 367 were not re-observed as part of SDSS-III/BOSS. In this paper, we describe the procedures used to compile the DR12Q catalog and changes relative to the previous SDSS-III/BOSS quasar catalogs (Pâris et al. 2012, 2014).

We summarize the target selection and observations in Sect. 2. We describe the visual inspection process and give the definition of the DR12Q parent sample in Sect. 3. General properties of the DR12Q sample are reviewed in Sect. 4 and the format of the file is described in Sect. 5. Supplementary lists are presented in Sect. 6. Finally, we conclude in Sect. 7.

In the following, we will use a ΛCDM cosmology with H0 = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1, ΩM = 0.3, ΩΛ = 0.7 (Spergel et al. 2003). We define a quasar as an object with a luminosity Mi[z = 2] < −20.5 and either displaying at least one emission line with FWHM> 500 km s-1 or, if not, having interesting/complex absorption features. Indeed, a few tens of objects have very weak emission lines but the Lyman-α forest is seen in their spectra (Diamond-Stanic et al. 2009), and thus we include them in the DR12Q catalog. About 200 quasars with unusual broad absorption lines are also included in our catalog (Hall et al. 2002) even though they do not formally meet the requirement on emission-line width. All magnitudes quoted here are Point Spread Function (PSF) magnitudes (Stoughton et al. 2002) and are corrected for Galactic extinction (Schlegel et al. 1998).

2. Observations

The measurement of the clustering properties of the IGM using the Lyman-α forest to constrain the BAO scale at z ~ 2.5 at the percent level requires a surface density of at least 15 quasars deg-2 in the redshift range 2.15–3.5 over about 10 000 square degrees (McDonald & Eisenstein 2007). To meet these requirements, the five-year SDSS-III/BOSS program observed about 184 000 quasars with 2.15 <z< 3.5 over 9376 deg2. The precision reached is of order 4.5% on the angular diameter distance and 2.6% in the Hubble constant at z ~ 2.5 (Eisenstein et al. 2011; Dawson et al. 2013; Alam et al. 2015). The BAO signal was detected in the auto-correlation of the Lyman-α forest (Busca et al. 2013; Slosar et al. 2013; Delubac et al. 2015) and in the cross-correlation of quasars with the Lyman-α forest (Font-Ribera et al. 2014) at z ~ 2.5 using previous data releases of SDSS-III (Ahn et al. 2012, 2014).

2.1. Imaging data

The SDSS-III/BOSS quasar target selection (Ross et al. 2012,and references therein) is based on the SDSS-DR8 imaging data (Aihara et al. 2011) which include the SDSS-I/II data with an extension to the South Galactic Cap (SGC). Imaging data were gathered using a dedicated 2.5 m wide-field telescope (Gunn et al. 2006) to collect light for a camera with 30 2k × 2k CCDs (Gunn et al. 1998) over five broad bands – ugriz (Fukugita et al. 1996). A total of 14 555 unique square degrees of the sky were imaged by this camera, including contiguous areas of ~7500 deg2 in the North Galactic Cap (NGC) and ~3100 deg2 in the SGC that comprise the uniform “Legacy” areas of the SDSS (Aihara et al. 2011). These data were acquired on dark photometric nights of good seeing (Hogg et al. 2001). Objects were detected and their properties were measured by the photometric pipeline (Lupton et al. 2001; Stoughton et al. 2002) and calibrated photometrically (Smith et al. 2002; Ivezić et al. 2004; Tucker et al. 2006; Padmanabhan et al. 2008), and astrometrically (Pier et al. 2003). The SDSS-III/BOSS limiting magnitudes for quasar target selection are r ≤ 21.85 or g ≤ 22.

2.2. Target selection

2.2.1. SDSS-III/BOSS main survey

The measurement of clustering in the IGM is independent of the properties of background quasars used to trace the IGM, allowing for a heterogeneous target selection to be adopted in order to achieve the main cosmological goals of BOSS. Conversely there is the desire to perform demographic measurements and quasar physics studies using a uniformly-selected quasar sample (e.g. White et al. 2012; Ross et al. 2013; Eftekharzadeh et al. 2015). Thus, a strategy that mixes a heterogeneous selection to maximize the surface density of z> 2.15 quasars, with a uniform subsample has been adopted by SDSS-III/BOSS (Ross et al. 2012).

On average, 40 fibers per square degree were allocated to the SDSS-III/BOSS quasar survey. About half of these fibers are selected by a single target selection in order to create a uniform (“CORE”) sample. Based on tests performed during the first year of BOSS observations, the CORE selection was performed by the XDQSO method (Bovy et al. 2011). The second half of the fibers are dedicated to a “BONUS” sample designed to maximize the z> 2.15 quasar surface density. The output of several different methods – a neural network combinator (Yèche et al. 2010), a Kernel Density Estimator (KDE; Richards et al. 2004, 2009), a likelihood method (Kirkpatrick et al. 2011), and the XDQSO method with lower likelihood than in the CORE sample – are combined to select the BONUS quasar targets. Where available, near-infrared data from UKIDSS (Lawrence et al. 2007), ultraviolet data from GALEX (Martin et al. 2005), along with deeper coadded imaging in overlapping SDSS runs (Aihara et al. 2011), were also incorporated to increase the high-redshift quasar yield (Bovy et al. 2012). In addition, all point sources that match the FIRST radio survey (July 2008 version; Becker et al. 1995) within a 1′′ radius and have (ug) > 0.4 (to filter out z< 2.15 quasars) are included in the quasar target selection.

To take advantage of the improved throughput of the SDSS spectrographs, previously known quasars from the SDSS-DR7 (Schneider et al. 2010), the 2QZ (Croom et al. 2004), the AAT-UKIDSS-DSS (AUS), the MMT-BOSS pilot survey (Appendix C in Ross et al. 2012) and quasars observed at high spectral resolution by VLT/UVES and Keck/HIRES were re-targeted. During the first two years of BOSS observations, known quasars with z> 2.15 were systematically re-observed. We extended the re-observations to known quasars with z> 1.8 starting from Year 3 in order to better characterize metals in the Lyman-α forest.

2.2.2. SDSS-III/BOSS ancillary programs

In addition to the main survey, about 5% of the SDSS-III/BOSS fibers are allocated to ancillary programs that cover a variety of scientific goals. The programs are described in the Appendix and Tables 6 and 7 of Dawson et al. (2013) and Sect 4.2 of Ahn et al. (2014). Ancillary programs whose observation started after MJD = 56 107 (29th June 2012) are detailed in Appendix A of Alam et al. (2015). The full list of ancillary programs targeting quasars (and their associated target selection bits) that are included in the present catalog is provided in Appendix A.

2.2.3. The Sloan Extended Quasar, ELG, and LRG Survey (SEQUELS)

A significant fraction of the remaining dark time available during the final year of SDSS-III was dedicated to a pilot survey to prepare for the extended Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS; Dawson et al. 2016), the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS; Morganson et al. 2015) and the SPectroscopic Identification of eROSITA Sources survey (SPIDERS): the Sloan Extended QUasar, ELG and LRG Survey (SEQUELS). The SEQUELS targets are tracked with the EBOSS_TARGET0 flag in DR12Q. The EBOSS_TARGET0 flag is detailed in Appendix A.3 and Table 7 of Alam et al. (2015). We provide here a brief summary of the various target selections applied to this sample.

The main SEQUELS subsample is based upon the eBOSS quasar survey (Myers et al. 2015):

  • The eBOSS “CORE” sample is intended to recoversufficient quasars in the redshift range0.9 < z < 2.2 for the cosmological goals of eBOSS and additional quasars at z > 2.2 to supplement BOSS. The CORE sample homogeneously targets quasars at all redshifts z > 0.9 based on the XDQSOz method (Bovy et al. 2012) in the optical and a WISE-optical color cut. In order to be selected, it is required that point sources have a XDQSOz probability to be a z > 0.9 quasar larger than 0.2 and pass the color cut moptmWISE ≥ (gi) + 3 where mopt is a weighted stacked magnitude in the g, r and i bands and mWISE is a weighted stacked magnitude in the W1 and W2 bands. Quasar candidates have g < 22 or r < 22 with a surface density of confirmed new quasars (at any redshifts) of ~70 deg-2.

  • PTF sample: quasars over a wide range of redshifts are selected via their photometric variability measured from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; Rau et al. 2009; Law et al. 2009). Quasar targets have r > 19 and g < 22.5 and provide an additional 3–4 z > 2.1 quasars per deg2.

  • Known quasars with low quality SDSS-III/BOSS spectra (0.75 < S/N per pixel < 3) or with bad spectra are re-observed.

  • uvxts == 1 objects in the KDE catalog of Richards et al. (2009) are targeted (this target class will be discontinued for eBOSS).

  • Finally, quasars within within 1′′ of a radio detection in the FIRST point source catalog (Becker et al. 1995) are targeted.

TDSS target point sources are selected to be variable in the g, r and i bands using the SDSS-DR9 imaging data (Ahn et al. 2012) and the multi-epoch Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) photometry (Kaiser et al. 2002, 2010). The survey does not specifically target quasars but a significant fraction of targets belong to this class (Morganson et al. 2015), and are thus included in the parent sample for the quasar catalog.

Finally, the AGN component of SPIDERS targets X-ray sources detected in the concatenation of the Bright and Faint ROSAT All Sky Survey (RASS) catalogs (Voges et al. 1999, 2000) and that have an optical counterpart detected in the DR9 imaging data (Ahn et al. 2012). Objects with 17 < r < 22 that lie within 1 of a RASS source are targeted.

2.3. Spectroscopy

Quasars selected by the various selection algorithms are observed with the BOSS spectrographs whose resolution varies from ~1300 at 3600 Å to 2500 at 10 000 Å (Smee et al. 2013). Spectroscopic observations are obtained in a series of at least three 15-min exposures. Additional exposures are taken until the squared signal-to-noise ratio per pixel, (S/N)2, reaches the survey-quality threshold for each CCD. These thresholds are (S/N)2 ≥ 22 at i-band magnitude 21 for the red camera and (S/N)2 ≥ 10 at g-band magnitude 22 for the blue camera (Galactic extinction-corrected magnitudes). The spectroscopic reduction pipeline for the BOSS spectra is described in Bolton et al. (2012). SDSS-III uses plates covered by 1000 fibers that can be placed such that, ideally, up to 1000 spectra can be obtained simultaneously. The plates are tiled in a manner which allows them to overlap (Dawson et al. 2013). A total of 2438 plates were observed between December 2009 and June 2014; some were observed multiple times. In total, 297 301 unique quasars have been spectroscopically confirmed based on our visual inspection described below. Figure 1 shows the observed sky regions. The total area covered by the SDSS-III/BOSS is 9376 deg2. Figure 2 shows the number of spectroscopically confirmed quasars with respect to their observation date.

thumbnail Fig. 1

Distribution on the sky of the SDSS-DR12/BOSS spectroscopy in J2000 equatorial coordinates (expressed in decimal degrees).

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thumbnail Fig. 2

Cumulative number of quasars as a function of observation date during the whole SDSS-III/BOSS survey. A total of 297 301 quasars was spectroscopically confirmed. The “flat portions” in this figure correspond to summer shutdowns.

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3. Construction of the DR12Q catalog

Spectra of all the SDSS-III/BOSS quasar candidates, all the SDSS-III quasar targets from ancillary programs and all the objects classified robustly as z ≥ 2 quasars by the SDSS pipeline (Bolton et al. 2012) among the galaxy targets (Reid et al. 2016) have been visually inspected. The SDSS-DR12 quasar catalog is built upon the output of the visual inspection of 546 856 such quasar candidates.

3.1. Visual inspection process

The spectra of quasar candidates are reduced by the SDSS pipeline1, which provides a classification (QSO, STAR or GALAXY) and a redshift. To achieve this, a library of stellar templates, and a principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition of galaxy and quasar spectra are fitted to each spectrum. Each class of templates is fitted in a given range of redshift: galaxies from z = −0.01 to 1.00, quasars from z = 0.0033 to 7.00, and stars from z = −0.004 to 0.004 (±1200 km s-1).

The pipeline thus provides the overall best fit (in terms of the lowest reduced χ2) and a redshift for each template and thus a classification for the object. A quality flag (ZWARNING) is associated with each measured redshift. ZWARNING = 0 indicates that the pipeline has high confidence in its estimate. This output is used as the starting point for the visual inspection process (see Bolton et al. 2012,for details).

Based on the initial SDSS pipeline classification and redshift, the quasar candidates are split into four categories: low-z (z< 2) and high-z (z ≥ 2) quasars, stars and “others”. The spectra are visually inspected through a dedicated webpage on which all spectra are matched to targeting information, imaging data and SDSS-I/II spectroscopy. The inspection is performed plate by plate for each category described above with a list of spectra whose identification and redshift can be validated at once. If an object requires a more thorough inspection, it can be inspected on a single page on which it is possible to change the redshift and identification of the object. Whenever a change of identification and/or redshift is necessary, it is done by eye. Additional flags are also set during the visual inspection when a Damped Lyman-α system or broad absorption lines (see Sect. 4.6 for further details) are seen. Finally, quality flags are set if there is an obvious reduction problem. When the redshift and identification are unambiguous based on this inspection, each object is classified QSO, Star or Galaxy and a redshift is adopted. If the pipeline redshift does not need to be modified, the SDSS pipeline redshift (Z_PIPE) and the visual inspection redshift (Z_VI) are identical. If not, the redshift is set by eye with an accuracy that cannot be better than Δz ~ 0.003. In some cases, objects undoubtedly are quasars but their redshift is uncertain; these objects are classified as QSO_Z? or QSO_BAL_Z? when the spectrum exhibits strong broad absorption lines. When the object identification is unsure they are classified either as QSO_? or as Star_?. For spectra with a moderate S/N but with a highly uncertain identification, the object is classified as ?. Finally, when the S/N is too low or the spectrum is affected by poor sky subtraction or has portions missing needed that prevent an identification, it is classified as Bad. The distinction between Bad and ? becomes somewhat subjective as the S/N decreases. Examples of spectra to illustrate these categories are shown in Fig. 3.

thumbnail Fig. 3

Examples of spectra identified as QSO_? (top left), QSO_Z? (middle left), QSO_BAL_Z? (bottom left), Star_? (top right), ? (middle right), and Bad (bottom right). The fluxes are shown in black and associated errors in green. All the spectra are smoothed over 10 pixels.

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Most of the quasars are observed as part of the main SDSS-III/BOSS quasar survey whose target selection is described in Ross et al. (2012) or ancillary programs targeting quasars. In addition, we also included serendipitous quasars that were found among galaxy targets. Because these latter spectra have usually low S/N, their exact identification is more difficult. Thus, specifically for these objects we adopted a binary visual inspection classification: either an object is a QSO or is not_a_QSO.

3.2. Definition of the DR12Q parent sample

We selected objects for visual inspection from among the following targets:

  • quasar targets from the main SDSS-III/BOSS quasar survey:these targets can be identified with the BOSS_TARGET1 targetselection flag (see Rosset al. 2012, for more details);

  • ancillary programs that target quasars: these can be identified with the ANCILLARY_TARGET1 and ANCILLARY_TARGET2 target selection flags that are fully described in Appendix B of Dawson et al. (2013) and Appendix A of Alam et al. (2015);

  • quasar targets from the SDSS-IV pilot survey that can be identified with the EBOSS_TARGET0 flag. The meaning of each value of this target selection bit is fully described in Appendix A of Alam et al. (2015);

  • SDSS-III/BOSS galaxy targets that are identified by the pipeline as either QSO with z > 2 and ZWARNING set to 0, or GALAXY with the subclass BROADLINE.

These criteria led to a superset containing 546 856 objects among which we identified 297 301 QSO, 1623 QSO_?, 1490 QSO_Z?, 22 804 Galaxy, 205 282 Star, 2640 Star_?, 6292 Bad, and 2386 ?. Among the galaxy targets, 6844 objects were identified as not a QSO after their visual inspection. Finally, a total of 192 quasar targets could not be visually inspected due to bad photometric information. The identification or redshift of 53 413 objects (out of 546 856) changed with respect to the SDSS pipeline (Bolton et al. 2012). A total of 83% of objects classified by the SDSS pipeline have ZWARNING = 0, i.e. their identification and redshift are considered secure. Among this subset, the identification or redshift of 3.3% of the objects changed after visual inspection. In such a case, the redshift is adjusted by eye. For the remaining 96.7%, we kept the SDSS pipeline redshift (and associated error) and identification. Emission-line confusions are the main source of catastrophic redshift failures, and wrong identifications mostly affect stars that are confused with z ~ 1 quasars because of poor sky subtraction at the red end of their spectra. The remaining 17% of the overall sample have ZWARNING> 0, i.e. the pipeline output may not be reliable. For these objects, 41.1% of the identification or redshift changed after inspection, following the same procedure as previously. The result of the visual inspection is summarized in Table 1. The SDSS-DR12 quasar catalog lists all the firmly confirmed quasars, i.e. those identified as QSO and QSO_BAL.

Table 1

Number of objects identified as such by the pipeline with any ZWARNING value (second column) and with ZWARNING = 0 (third column), and after the visual inspection (fourth column).

Together with the quasar catalog, the full result of the visual inspection, i.e. the identification of all visually inspected objects, is made available as part of the superset file from which we derive this catalog. The identification of each object described in Sect. 3.1 (e.g. QSO, QSO_Z?, Bad) is encoded with two parameters in the superset file: CLASS_PERSON and Z_CONF_PERSON. The former refers to the classification itself, QSO, Star or Galaxy, while the latter refers to our level of confidence for the redshift we associate to each object. The relation between these two parameters and the identification from Sect. 3.1 is given in Table 2. We refer the reader to Appendix B for the detailed format of the DR12 superset file, which is provided in FITS format (Wells et al. 1981).

thumbnail Fig. 4

Left panel: redshift distribution of the SDSS-DR12 (thick black histogram), SDSS-DR10 (orange histogram) and SDSS-DR7 (blue histogram) quasars over the redshift range 0–6. Right panel: redshift distribution of the SDSS-DR12 quasars for the CORE sample (dark blue histogram), BONUS sample (light blue histogram), ancillary programs (red histogram) and SEQUELS (orange histogram). The bin size of all the histograms is Δz = 0.05. The two peaks at z ~ 0.8 and z ~ 1.6 seen in the redshift distribution of the SDSS-DR10 and SDSS-DR12 quasar samples (left panel) and in the distribution of the CORE and BONUS samples (right panel) are due to known degeneracies in the quasar target selection (see Ross et al. 2012,for details).

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4. Summary of the sample

4.1. Broad view

The DR12Q catalog contains a total of 297 301 unique quasars, among which 184 101 have z> 2.15. This represents an increase of 78% compared to the full SDSS-DR10 quasar catalog (Pâris et al. 2014), and 121 923 quasars are new discoveries compared to the previous release. The full SDSS-III spectroscopic survey covers a total footprint of 9376 deg2, leading to an average surface density of z> 2.15 quasars of 19.64 deg-2. A total of 222 329 quasars, 167 007 having z> 2.15, are located in the SDSS-III/BOSS main quasar survey and are targeted as described in Ross et al. (2012)2. Additional BOSS-related programs3 targeted 54 639 quasars, and SEQUELS4 targeted a total of 20 333 confirmed quasars.

SDSS-DR12 quasars have redshifts between z = 0.041 and z = 6.440. The highest redshift quasar in our sample was discovered by Fan et al. (2001)5. The redshift distribution of the entire sample is shown in Fig. 4 (left panel; black histogram) and compared to the SDSS-DR7 (Schneider et al. 2010,blue histogram) and the SDSS-DR10 (Pâris et al. 2014,orange histogram) quasar catalogs. The two peaks at z ~ 0.8 and z ~ 1.6 seen in the SDSS-DR10 and SDSS-DR12 redshift distributions are due to known degeneracies in the SDSS color space. The right panel of Fig. 4 presents the redshift distribution for each main subsample: the CORE sample (dark blue histogram) designed for quasar demographics and physics studies, the BONUS sample (light blue histogram) whose goal is to maximize the number of 2.15 ≤ z ≤ 3.5 quasars, quasars observed as part of ancillary programs (red histogram) and the SDSS-IV pilot survey, i.e. the SEQUELS sample (orange histogram).

thumbnail Fig. 5

Left panel: distribution of r PSF magnitude (corrected for Galactic extinction) for the BOSS main sample (selected by the algorithms described in Ross et al. 2012,thick black histogram), ancillary programs (red histogram) and SEQUELS (orange histogram). The bin size is Δr = 0.02. Right panel: absolute magnitude-redshift plane for SDSS-DR12 CORE+BONUS quasars (black contours), quasars observed as part of SDSS-DR12 ancillary programs (red points), SEQUELS quasars (orange points) and SDSS-DR7 quasars (blue contours). The absolute magnitudes assume H0 = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1 and the K-correction is given by Richards et al. (2006), who define K(z = 2) = 0. Contours are drawn at constant point density.

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Table 2

Visual inspection classification, corresponding to the combination of the class_person (first column) and z_conf_person (first row) values provided in the superset file described in Appendix B.

The main SDSS-III/BOSS quasar survey is designed to target quasars in the redshift range 2.15 ≤ z ≤ 3.5 down to g = 22 or r = 21.85. The r-band magnitude (corrected for Galactic extinction) distribution of those quasars is displayed in Fig. 5 (left panel, black histogram). Each ancillary program has its own target selection (see e.g., Alam et al. 2015), leading to an extremely heterogeneous sample whose r-band PSF magnitude distribution is also shown in Fig. 5 (left panel, red histogram). Lastly, the SDSS-IV pilot survey (SEQUELS) focuses on quasars with 0.9 ≤ z ≤ 3.5 down to g = 22 or r = 22 (Myers et al. 2015). The r-band PSF magnitude distribution of the resulting sample is displayed in Fig. 5 (left panel, orange histogram). The right panel of Fig. 5 presents the luminosity-redshift plane for the three subsamples contributing to the present catalog: the SDSS-III/BOSS main survey (black contours), quasars observed as part of ancillary programs (red points) and SEQUELS quasars (orange points). The SDSS-DR7 quasars are plotted for reference in the same plane (blue contours). Typical quasar spectra are shown in Fig. 6.

thumbnail Fig. 6

Spectrum of the highest redshift (z = 6.440) quasar observed by BOSS is displayed in the top left panel. This quasar was discovered by Fan et al. (2001). Typical spectra of SEQUELS quasars are presented at five different redshifts: z ~ 1.2 (top right panel) and z ~ 1.6 (middle left panel). Typical BOSS quasars are shown at three different redshifts: z ~ 2.2 (middle right panel), z ~ 2.7 (bottom left panel) and z ~ 3.5 (bottom right panel). All the spectra are smoothed over 5 pixels.

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4.2. Known quasars from SDSS-I/II re-observed by SDSS-III/BOSS

As explained in Sect. 2.2, a significant fraction of known quasars from DR7Q have been re-observed by the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The main quasar target selection (Ross et al. 2012) systematically re-targeted DR7Q quasars with zDR7 ≥ 2.15 over the entire survey. Starting from Year 3, DR7Q quasars with 1.8 ≤ zDR7< 2.15 were also re-observed with the BOSS spectrograph. Other DR7Q quasars, mostly at lower redshifts, were targeted as part of SDSS-III ancillary programs. SDSS-III/BOSS spectra were obtained for 25 416 objects listed in DR7Q. A total of 25 275 quasars known from DR7Q are included in the present catalog, i.e. are classified as QSO or QSO_BAL. A total of 59 are not part of the DR12Q catalog due to a lower confidence level of their redshift estimate, i.e., they were classified as QSO_Z? or QSO_BAL_Z?, and their current identification is included in the DR12 superset file. A total of 14 quasars dropped out of the DR12Q catalog due to bad photometric information and were not visually inspected, and 67 quasars have bad spectra, mostly “empty spectra”, in SDSS-III/BOSS. Our visual inspection is based on SDSS-III/BOSS spectroscopy only and thus, those spectra were re-classified as Bad. Finally, one object, SDSS J015957.64+003310.5, had its identification changed and was reported to be a “changing-look quasar” (LaMassa et al. 2015; Merloni et al. 2015).

The DR7Q catalog contains 19 132 quasars with z ≥ 2.15. In principle, all of these objects should have been re-observed by SDSS-III/BOSS. However, 2265 DR7Q quasars lie outside of the SDSS-III/BOSS footprint and hence were not re-targeted. The other 16 867 quasars have a SDSS-III/BOSS spectrum. Since the systematic re-observation of DR7Q quasars with 1.8 ≤ z < 2.15 started in Year 3, the completeness for those objects is much lower, with a total of 5676 having a SDSS-III/BOSS spectrum (out of 15 432 DR7Q quasars in the same redshift range).

4.3. Differences between the SDSS-DR10 and SDSS-DR12 quasar catalogs

The previous SDSS quasar catalog (DR10Q; Pâris et al. 2014) contained 166 583 quasars, 166 520 are included in the DR12Q catalog. Among the 63 “missing” quasars, 60 were identified in the galaxy targets and are now part of the supplementary list (see Sect. 6). As explained in Sect. 3.2, we define our parent sample based on quasar candidates from either the main SDSS-III/BOSS survey or ancillary programs, and we also search for serendipitous quasars among galaxy targets based on the SDSS pipeline identification. The latter definition depends on the SDSS pipeline version, leading to slight variations between parent samples drawn for each data release. However, we keep track of firm identifications from previous pipeline versions and provide them in the supplementary list.

The identification of two objects reported as quasars in DR10Q changed: one is now classified as QSO_? and the second one as Bad. Those two objects are part of the DR12Q superset with their new identification. Finally, one actual quasar (SDSS J013918.06+224128.7) dropped out of the main catalog but is part of the supplementary list. This quasar was re-observed as an emission line galaxy (ELG) candidate. The target selection bits for the two spectra are inconsistent. The best spectrum as identified by the SDSS pipeline, i.e. having SPECPRIMARY = 1, is associated with the ELG target, but not with the quasar target. It is therefore not selected to be part of our parent sample.

4.4. Uniform sample

As in DR9Q and DR10Q, we provide a uniform flag (row #31 of Table C.1) in order to identify a homogeneously selected sample of quasars. The CORE sample has been designed to have a well understood and reproducible selection function. However, its definition varied over the first year of the survey. Regions of the sky within which all the algorithms used in the quasar target selection are uniform are called “Chunks”; their definition is given in Ross et al. (2012). After Chunk 12, CORE targets were selected with the XDQSO technique only (Bovy et al. 2011). These objects have uniform = 1. Quasars in the DR12Q catalog with uniform = 2 are objects that would have been selected by XDQSO if it had been the CORE algorithm prior to Chunk 12. Objects with uniform = 2 are reasonably complete to what XDQSO would have selected, even prior to Chunk 12. DR12Q only contains information about spectroscopically confirmed quasars and not about all targets. Hence, care must be taken to draw a statistical sample from the uniform flag. See, e.g., the discussion regarding the creation of a statistical sample for clustering measurements in White et al. (2012) and Eftekharzadeh et al. (2015). Quasars with uniform = 0 are not homogeneously selected CORE targets.

4.5. Accuracy of redshift estimates

The present catalog contains six different redshift estimates: the visual inspection redshift (Z_VI), the SDSS pipeline redshift (Z_PIPE), a refined PCA redshift (Z_PCA) and three emission-line based redshifts (Z_CIV, Z_CIII and Z_MGII).

As described in Sect. 3.1, quasar redshifts provided by the SDSS pipeline (Bolton et al. 2012) are the result of a linear combination of four eigenspectra. The latter were derived from a principal component analysis (PCA) of a sample of quasars with robust redshifts. Hence, this does not guarantee this value to be the most accurate (e.g. Hewett & Wild 2010; Shen et al. 2016). The SDSS pipeline has a very high success rate in terms of identification and redshift estimate, and in order to correct for the remaining misidentifications and catastrophic redshift failures, we perform the systematic visual inspection of all quasar targets. In case we modified the SDSS pipeline redshift, the visual inspection redshift provides a robust value, set to be at the location of the maximum of the Mg ii emission line, when this emission line is available in the spectrum. The estimated accuracy is Δz = 0.003. This value corresponds to the limit below which we are no longer able to see any difference by eye.

We also provide a homogeneous automated redshift estimate (Z_PCA) that is based on the result of a PCA performed on a sample of quasars with redshifts measured at the location of the maximum of the Mg ii emission line (see Pâris et al. 2012,for details). The Mg ii line is chosen as the reference because this is the broad emission line the least affected by systematic shifts with respect to the systemic redshift (e.g. Hewett & Wild 2010; Shen et al. 2016). In addition to this PCA redshift, we also provide the redshift corresponding to the position of the maximum of the three broad emission lines we fit as part of this catalog: C ivλ1550, C iii]λ1909 and Mg iiλ2800.

Hewett & Wild (2010) carefully studied the systematic emission-lines shifts in the DR6 quasar sample and computed accurate quasar redshifts by correcting for these shifts. In DR12Q, there are 5328 non-BAL quasars that have redshifts measured by Hewett & Wild (2010) available and for which we also have Mg ii redshifts that are expected to be the closest estimates to the quasar systemic redshift. Mg ii-based redshifts are redshifted by 3.3 km s-1 compared to the Hewett & Wild (2010) measurements, with a dispersion of 326 km s-1. This confirms that Mg ii redshifts provide a reliable and accurate measurement.

80 791 have the six redshift measurements provided in our catalog available. We compute the redshift difference, expressed as velocities, for Z_VI, Z_MGII, Z_PIPE, Z_CIV and Z_CIII with respect to Z_PCA. We take the latter as our reference because this measurement is uniformally run over the entire DR12Q sample. The distributions of redshift differences are shown in Fig. 7. Mg ii-based redshifts are redshifted by 2.1 km s-1 compared to the PCA redshifts with a dispersion of 680 km s-1. In average, visual inspection redshifts are blueshifted by 15.3 km s-1 with respect to the PCA redshifts with a dispersion of 529 km s-1. The SDSS pipeline estimates are redshifted by 42.7 km s-1 with a dispersion of 637 km s-1. Finally, as expected, C iv and C iii] redshifts are the most shifted with respect to the PCA redshifts with an average blueshift of 321 km s-1 and 312 km s-1 respectively.

thumbnail Fig. 7

Distribution of velocity differences between the visual inspection redshift (Z_VI, black histogram), Mg ii-based redshift (Z_MGII, red histogram), SDSS pipeline redshift (Bolton et al. 2012,blue histogram), C iv-based redshift (Z_CIV, green histogram), C iii]-based redshift (Z_CIII, cyan histogram) and the PCA redshift (Z_PCA). The bin size of all the histograms is Δv = 50 km s-1.

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4.6. Broad Absorption Line quasars

As described in Pâris et al. (2012), quasars displaying broad absorption lines (BAL) are flagged in the course of the visual inspection of all the quasar targets. This flag (BAL_FLAG_VI, Col. #56 of Table C.1) provides qualitative information about the existence of such features only. We refer the reader to Sect. 5 of Pâris et al. (2012) for a full discussion of the robustness of the visual inspection detection of BALs. A total of 29 580 quasars have been flagged in the course of visual inspection.

In order to have a more systematic detection of BALs and quantitative measurement of their properties, we automatically search for BAL features and report metrics of common use in the community: the BALnicity index (BI; Weymann et al. 1991) and the absorption index (AI; Hall et al. 2002) of the C iv absorption troughs. We restrict the automatic search to quasars with Z_VI≥ 1.57 in order to have the full spectral coverage of C iv absorption troughs.

The BALnicity index (Col. #57) is computed bluewards of the C iv emission line and is defined as: (1)where is the normalized flux density as a function of velocity displacement from the emission-line center. The quasar continuum is estimated using a linear combination of four principal components as described in Pâris et al. (2012). is initially set to 0 and can take only two values, 1 or 0. It is set to 1 whenever the quantity is continuously positive over an interval of at least 2000 km s-1. It is reset to 0 whenever this quantity becomes negative. C iv absorption troughs wider than 2000 km s-1 are detected in the spectra of 16 442 quasars. The number of lines of sight in which BI_CIV is positive is lower than the number of visually flagged BAL for several reasons: (i) the visual inspection provides a qualitative flag for absorption troughs that do not necessarily meet the requirements defined in Eq. (1); (ii) the visual inspection is not restricted to any search window; and (iii) the visual inspection flags rely on absorption troughs due to other species in addition to C iv (especially Mg ii). The distribution of BI for C iv troughs from DR12Q is plotted in the right panel of Fig. 8 (black histogram) and is compared to previous works by Gibson et al. (2009, blue histogram) performed on DR5Q (Schneider et al. 2007) and by Allen et al. (2011, red histogram) who searched for BAL quasars in quasar spectra released as part of SDSS-DR6 (Adelman-McCarthy et al. 2008). The three distributions are normalized.

thumbnail Fig. 8

Left panel: distribution of AI for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; Trump et al. 2006) and the SDSS-DR12 (black histogram) quasars. Both distributions are normalized to have a surface area equal to 1 for log AI > 2.5. Right panel: distribution of BI from the DR12Q catalog (black histogram), from the SDSS-DR6 (red histogram; Allen et al. 2011) and from the SDSS-DR5 (blue histogram; Gibson et al. 2009). All the distributions are normalized to have their sum equal to 1.

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The overall shapes of the three distributions are similar. The BI distribution from Gibson et al. (2009) exhibits an excess of low-BI values compared to Allen et al. (2011) and this work. The most likely explanation is the difference in the quasar emission modeling. Allen et al. (2011) used a non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) to estimate the unabsorbed flux, which produces a quasar emission line shape akin to the one we obtain with PCA. Gibson et al. (2009) modeled the quasar continuum with a reddened power-law and strong emission lines with Voigt profiles. Power-law like continua tend to underestimate the actual quasar emission and hence, the resulting BI values tend to be lower than the one computed when the quasar emission is modeled with NMF or PCA methods.

For weaker absorption troughs, we compute the absorption index (Col. #59) as defined by Hall et al. (2002): (2)where is the normalized continuum and has the same definition as in Eq. (1)except that the threshold to set C to 1 is reduced to 450 km s-1. Following Trump et al. (2006), we calculate the reduced χ2 for each trough, i.e. where C = 1: (3)where N is the number of pixels in the trough, is the normalized flux and σ the estimated rms noise for each pixel. The greater the value of , the more likely the trough is not due to noise. Following the recommendations of Trump et al. (2006), we report AIs when at least one C iv absorption trough is detected with . A total of 48 863 quasars satisfy this definition. The distribution of AI with is shown in the left panel of Fig. 8 (black histogram) and is compared to the results of Trump et al. (2006, magenta histogram). Both distributions are normalized to have a surface area equal to 1 for log AI > 2.5. The distributions are similar. The main difference between the two distributions is the existence of a tail at low AI in DR12Q. This is due to the modified definition for AI used in Trump et al. (2006): the 0.9 factor in Eq. (2)was removed and the detection threshold was larger (1000 km s-1 instead of 450 km s-1 here).

We also report the number of troughs detected with widths larger than 2000 km s-1 (Col. #62 in Table C.1) and larger than 450 km s-1 (Col. #65) together with the velocity ranges over which these troughs are detected (Cols. #63-64 and #66-67, respectively).

Table 3

Format of the binary FITS file that contains “trough-by-trough” information for BAL quasars.

BAL information reported in the DR12Q catalog is computed over all the absorption troughs that are detected. However, out of 29 580 quasars with BAL_FLAG_VI = 1, i.e. flagged during the visual inspection process, 16 693 have more than one absorption trough larger than 450 km s-1 detected in the spectrum (out of 21 444 with AI > 0), and 2564 with more than one absorption trough larger than 2000 km s-1 (out of 15 044 with BI > 0). We provide detailed “trough-by-trough” information for all tes (Bal quasar spectcpan>.gt pr (bla27999-SHullspan> 0). We dspectcpahan 20be at the lo /aa2">Hewett aasse bro2EXTER">Ope cles/aan,bin17/01/aa275:/articles/a="/articles/aa/full_html/2017/01/aa27999-15/aa27999-15.html#F5">5 (left panel, black histog10.png"> has the rely ed taflu017/019-15.html#T7">C.1) and larger than 450 the ull_html/2017/01/aa27999-15/at5-eq12formed o with uniform = 0 are not homogeneou9r>  044 mo un-w fllengsim fochf 29 SDSSdiv>orrectingopositive n. How>The prFIRSTs/adios contribsar spectra released as part of SDSS-DR6 (Hewett & Wild 2010; : distribu96on of AI for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; Hewett & Wild 2010; /full_h199cles/aa/aa27999-15/aa27999-15.html#R33">Hewett & Wild 2010; . : distribu92on of AI for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; B.

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Aation (Nween thely knl_ht01/aa27999-15/aa7.

4.3. De ta/99-1n4 yrm). Both d/215/a0 o claw119.pD of 29Yon-l1 l. l2,a279999-15/aa7.M,s u805rea 15e reducememath"-ng butti17/fugr Yon-l2,a9-15/aa7.M,s u805re1.8e reducemematuourseLs and quh"-ng butti17n clae detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l28hift11;30.). The three 1 p.

Slass=oscop aiplmers/span>, M existenJulilass=oscop a21;an>w/span> linl-15/aa717n clae detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l3 th. The three 1 p.

Unian> ral r. S oflaxy targets and are now part of the supplementary list (see Sect. Mre detected l>Mre detected l32th. The three 1 p.

Slass=ndeopp>Foquasars satis (Z_PCA). The fopan45is thcalb>izespan7;bel-eq"ubhs wider. log&ysaa27999-ibuapentxux and 9-179 al. (200imple-math">z ~ 2.2ysaa20alb> &om733; izespan7;bel-ee the06pan45is thcalb>izespan7;bel-eq"ubhs wugh larger,e17/01/aa279maticb>s/F) to estimatf> Mre detected l>Mre detected l33th. The three 1 p.

Medi-math

BAGII,wl .n class="si 8Mre detected l>Mre detected l34th. The three 1 p.

Medi-math

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FWHM bs 2564 with more than one absorption trough larger),abn> tline hae tlf).

for tlf-/ax m99-(HWHM;9Rn.mspan. Thlme;worm). Bs FWHM//215/at th. The (i7/ufth t, we alsediTrump et al. (2006),qual tos/F) to estima20Ie sys /F) to estimatr= aa27 Mre detected l>Mre detected l42hift11;43th. The three 1 p.

Res sf&# 1rm).ipant;t..

Trump et al. (2006),qual tos/F) to estima20Ie sys /F) to estimatr= aa27 km inspsimplMre detected l>Mre detected l44hift11;47.). The three 1 p.

Sml/2acl38hift11;4 i 8Trump et al. (2006)ii] we repo/F) to es9orictx20Ix aa/well knl_ht1. Qu88">Trump et al. (2006)ii]eq">(3)1 (3)1909 aa/ thndCa e863 Si8">Trump et al. (2006)ii]eq">(3)1 (3)18921Rhism1taa2/aa/to n9em863 Al8">Trump et al. (2006)ii]eq">(3)1 (3)1857of thuion prme;Trump et al. (2006)ii]eq">(3)1 (3)1909isT016bn> tobserved by HWHM2isengn thely aff bro2Ebquspanbthnd 1EXTERe detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l48hift11;49.). The three 1 p.

Ris sf&# 1rm).ipant;t..

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Sml/2acl38hift11;4 i 8Mre detected l>Mre detected l54hift11;55.). The three 1 p.

Ris sf&# 1rm).ipant;t..

Trump et al. (2006)ii]eq">(3)1 (3)4960,05, 8. 20hy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l56.). The three 1 p.

nforal reaistribut01;580 quasars wi,i detailed &paIfizanforaeament9wathidenteistenaa2>,t of 29 580 quasars wit Qu nyaneas six linee reep>BALanforaeament9/sp Trump et al. (2006), we repoation reported in 279hy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l57hift11;58.). The three 1 p.

Balnicoryropp>Fo(BI011/aa27999-15/aa27999-15.html#R33">Hewett & Wild 2010; Weymann>/full_h199_html/2for_88">Trump et al. (2006),eq">(3)<"ed in estimate, ierrassenn our catain D Me are1.57eq">(3)& a fus> BTrump et al. (2006),eq">(3)<"ed in (ban a<"ed in /sp & Fo17/01 = errasosimplMre detected l>Mre detected l59hift11;60.). The three 1 p.

Ation reporopp>F,o17/01 = erras,2for_88">Trump et al. (2006),eq">(3)<"ed in nn our catain D Mre detected l>Mre detected l6 th. The three 1 p.

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L#916 t, we al0ng">Trump et al. (2006),eq">(3)<"ed in nof). 0rti0&absorptml#R88">Trump et al. (20ption trough larger line hachf 29999-15.ht10%he > war s-15/a> foron t79Soei>)t9-uasar rho uned t"ed in euasarsan> tdemarcZ_alo> en a="/aaistribut irs15gopGII, Zshtmed in. EXTERe detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l65.). The three 1 p.

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T Th9-15rI/fu99-1Runw/span> (RUN_NUMBER/E,5/a>. Mre detected l>Mre detected l73hift11;76.). The three 1 p.

Aon flaginuSDSStaroctssf 29i7an> 0). W:ae alel of 14 quaaroctssf 29rerunw/span> (RERUN_NUMBER/;yt BALpgera9coormn (1hift11;6)5. Accmlf 29aa27om>≥tseaogorm (COL_NUMBER/, clasaie799/span>wher> en un5. Accmlf 29aa27ogorm (FIELD_NUMBER/, ,5/a> (OBJ_ID, m ofi>:for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; Std intoes/aa/full_02017/0afor_01usinpa0 < t, we ase;4h&# 14isa). EXTERe detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l77hift11;78.). The three 1 p.

aa5/aPSF11/aa/a/2n our catain nanom>&gins-15/aa27999-15.html#F5">5 (left panel, black histog10.png"> has 9">/2017/Mre detected l>Mre detected l79hift11;80.). The three 1 p.

aa5/aPSF1ABh/a>). TheBo(i>: distribu53on of AI for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; : distribu45on of AI for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; ). TheBoLG) Asf h//a>). TheBoLorption traa2AI for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; Mre detected l>Mre detected l8 th. The three 1 p.

aa8aPSF11/aa/aa(n pr DR6 qug afor_Galacallcexa27cter.)/2n our catain nanom/fu9/a/2andclasaipec9-15la rPIPs 1e coual of 14 ye/span>201een re-observed by the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The main quasar target selection (Mre detected l>Mre detected l82th. The three 1 p.

T Thttiolr PCro>). The t a SDS.html#R88">Trump et al. (2006ibel-eq">(3)1)ezs th = 2aa27999 calcul)Foquasars satis (Z_PCA). The bm722;0.5 larger. TSDS.html#R88">Trump et al. (2006K1">Myers et- DR6 qu wit/spystematic the ean cla4aaistr/aa27999-15/aa27999-15.html#R33">Hewett & Wild 2010; RiLhh&ds/full_htl_h06)l/2079W27th resh SDSStarom>k">pl of 14 ye term or PCA sarsan> 20n clae detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l83th. The three 1 p.

pen quasars satis (Z_PCA). The bin s(006g1">Mtom722;i>zis th01/aa279,umle ve matriesh> and thiGalacallcexa27cter.r DR6 qug aquasars satis (Z_PCA). The(006g1">Mtom722;i>zis th01/aa279, 8201,5/a> en/a>.Mtom722;i>zis th01/aa279,ibuaa27ption tr 820ve matriolassa/ 8Melt; 0.12aa27999tributions are normalized to Me are5.12aa27999 ;yt BALoormn will5. Accml,s used quasars satis (Z_PCA). The bm722;999cle27999">><20n clae detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l84th. The three 1 p.

Galacallcexa27cter.randclasaipec9-15lal. 1nbistogon>. Th/apsbl#F8">e SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The main quasar target selection (201een re-observed bwathdono the et#8sTh/aps20n clae detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l85.). The three 1 p.

Galacallcexa27cter.randclasaipec9-15lal. 1nbistogon>does not gua72on of AI for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; Mre detected l>Mre detected l86.). The three 1 p.

T016>. ar th r805> enGalacallcneus=ndehydrogenALoormn dnn2 ryra>. TpGII, il#Rofps 202017/01/imate tmematfflux and viaroAcerpolnter. TheGII,21-cm1g to ar codoes not gua85on of AI for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; bquspanMX-ray C a fu. Errass&rafied by ts="simpleoAcerpolnter. thanhave Mg (3)D Trump et al. (20ptionlate the reduce( thi, m oflaxy t5bl#F8">/aa27999-25on of AI for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; /full_h1994html/20n clae detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l87.). The three 1 p.

Fl reaor par Mgiforyropan> 0). W20Ie noropan> 0). Weovia have th,eVAR_MATCHEDr/sp wherel of 14 quaempch se su">HewePTF-observa27iform = (E2">B_TARGET0,6bspr21),6both PTF 7999S-15rel of 14 ytmemate su">Heweiform = lyf 29i7/ seas4 qpe 82s="g279,9999-1S-15rel of 14 ytma se su">n clae detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l88.). The three 1 p.

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Tpanbes sfsprimate tre sys s mucment999-15-eq9gh&# 14isa/ PCA redshift (Z_PCA). The(3)e7999-15/aa27999-15-eq109.png">(3)imsorption traa27999-15.html#R88">Trump et al. (2006): the 0.9 factor in Eq. ( and 312 Mre detected l>Mre detected l9 th. The three 1 p.

pen >. ar th r805> env> itf 2- DR6 qug asou79srmeer(el ofnssorptml#R88">Trump et al. (20ption trough larger) andclasbroadsenergy1al. u(0.1hift11;2.4 keV/aistributROSAT All-SkyaScontr FancipSqua 2.Cpan>. pii>:for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; /full_hrti02017/<7999ibutROSAT All-SkyaScontr Bs="smaSqua 2.Cpan>. pii>:for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; /full_h199cles/). T Th/aochf 29/adiu -ma s (out mum oflaxy targets and are now part of the supplementary list (see Sect. Mre detected l>Mre detected l92th. The three 1 p.

T Th9/Nr805> enROSAT to have a m20n clae detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l93th. The three 1 p.

Angul201segh-eq95. ThS-15r7999ROSAT All-SkyaScontr locmed ote,aa2arcsecon s/20n clae detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l94th. The three 1 p.

Nspan>wher (out m/adiu -aes/nd>. ThS-15/aa5/ation (Nwn 450 Mre detected l>Mre detected l95hift11;96.). The three 1 p.

Tll_htX-ray 1/aa2(0.2hift11;12 keV/ distributtr> Mre detected l>Mre detected l97hift11;98.). The three 1 p.

Soft2X-ray 1/aa2(0.2hift11;2 keV/ distr≥L informMre detected l>Mre detected l99hift11;100.). The three 1 p.

Hard1X-ray 1/aa2(4.5hift11;12 keV/Edistr≥L informMre detected l>Mre detected l101hift11;102th. The three 1 p.

Tll_htX-ray 1/aa2(0.2hift11;12 keV/ distr≥L informMre detected l>Mre detected l103th. The three 1 p.

pll_htX-ray luminn 45y2(0.2hift11;12 keV/ deritticfistribut /aa2a279maticb>sthan 495/2n our catain D Ope c DR6 qug ishy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l104th. The three 1 p.

X-ray luminn 45y2andclas0.5hift11;2 keV1al. uherz ~ 2.2020alb> = 70&absorption trough Mpcth an average bluesh,oquasars satis (Z_PCA). The bi37;balb>m20alb> = 0.3 bluesh,oquasars satis (Z_PCA). The bi37;balb> bi2 is alb> = 0.7eq">(3)e79991/ans infER">Ope c DR6 qug ishy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l105.). The three 1 p.

X-ray luminn 45y2andclas4.5hift11;12 keV1al. uherz ~ 2.2020alb> = 70&absorption trough Mpcth an average bluesh,oquasars satis (Z_PCA). The bi37;balb>m20alb> = 0.3 bluesh,oquasars satis (Z_PCA). The bi37;balb> bi2 is alb> = 0.7eq">(3)e79991/ans infER">Ope c DR6 qug ishy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l106.). The three 1 p.

Tll_htX-ray luminn 45y2(0.2hift11;12 keV/ the eR /aa2san> t/L quasars. t/spystematic the e 580 quasars witains six differimple-math">z ~ 2.2020alb> = 70&absorption trough Mpcth an average, bi37;balb>m20alb> = 0.3, bi37;balb> bi2 is alb> = 0.7eq">(3)e79991/ans infER">Ope c DR6 qug ishy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l107.). The three 1 p.

Ia/ sear&t the an0ufeet Mg < 01/aa2799 or no 01/aa2799 andclas2hift11;10 keV1al. uR /aa2/L quasars.l#9162017/ satar&t ent reLUMX2_10_UPPERral rep>sttion of /spysormn /sp Mre detected l>Mre detected l108.). The three 1 p.

Angul201segh-eq95. ThMre detected l>Mre detected l109.). The three 1 p.

IfizaS-15/aa5/ation (N1fochains="siGALEXrel of 14 q 2/2GALEX_MATCHEDr/sp )ns 79hy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l1 shift11;113th. The three 1 p.

UV11/aa/aa17/017se ks var M; 2s fistrGALEX,o1lumment-el of 14e9-15aistributorig;ginuGALEXri/ful6 andclas>woral. 1nFUV117/0NUV. T Th1/aa/aa1hanhavur catain nanom>&gins79hy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l1 4hift11;115.). The three 1 p.

TSDS.html#R88">Trump et al. (2006Jbel-eq">(3)ero>). The ,5/aerras5aistributTworMicrles/01/SkyaScontr All-SkyaD to R5 hist PoncipSqua 2.Cpan>. pii>:for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; /full_hrti3ml/2/E the emi/aochf 29/adiu -l#Fn2./roughs. We restrict the autom242;tom242;> (out mum oflaxy targets and are now part of the supplementary list (see Sect. BB). TheB79hy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l1 6hift11;117.). The three 1 p.

Sslyal-to-n clasrmed tt a SDS.html#R88">Trump et al. (2006Jbel-eq">(3)B). The ,5/a1 = erras-15/aa27999-15.html#F5">5 (left panel, black histog10.png"> has20">/51/aaMre detected l>Mre detected l1 8hift11;12 th. The three 1 p.

Sml/2acl1 4hift11;117r 8z ~ 2.2Mre detected l>Mre detected l122hift11;125.). The three 1 p.

Sml/2acl1 4hift11;117r 8z ~ 2.2Mre detected l>Mre detected l126.). The three 1 p.

Angul201segh-eq95. ThS-15/aa5/al. llMA>BMre detected l>Mre detected l127hift11;128.). The three 1 p.

TSDS.html#R88">Trump et al. (2006ws th1eq">(3)ero>). The ,5/aerras5aistributWide-aie799Infra9-15Scontr Explor rtmWISE01/aa27999-15/aa27999-15.html#R33">Hewett & Wild 2010; Ws="smaes/aa/full02017/. p the emi/aochf 29/adiu -l#F2roughs. We restrict the autom242;tom242;> (out 79hy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l129hift11;130.). The three 1 p.

Sslyal-to-n clasrmed t7999-15/aa27999-15-eq109.png">, we calculate the reducet a SDSWISEa.html#R88">Trump et al. (2006ws th1eq">(3)eal. 79hy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l131hift11;134th. The three 1 p.

Sml/2acl127hift11;130r 8z ~ 2.2Mre detected l>Mre detected l135hift11;138.). The three 1 p.

Sml/2acl127hift11;130r 8z ~ 2.2Mre detected l>Mre detected l139hift11;142th. The three 1 p.

Sml/2acl127hift11;130r 8z ~ 2.2Mre detected l>Mre detected l143th. The three 1 p.

WISEa. Accmcenter. c7999anfuhe qual r. hy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l144th. The three 1 p.

WISEael of 14 quang forytal r. hy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l145.). The three 1 p.

Angul201segh-eq95S-15/aa5/al. lWISEaen 450 Mre detected l>Mre detected l146.). The three 1 p.

IfizaS-15/aa5/ation (N1fochainUKI-15r7lumment-el of 14e9f 29g to,nUKI-15_MATCHEDr/sp )ns 79hy ete detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l147hift11;154th. The three 1 p.

F/aa2dnn2 ryra5/aerras5aistrUKI-15,o1lumment-el of 14e9-15aistributorig;ginuUKI-15ri/ful6 andclas quasal. 1nple-math">z ~ 2.2(3)e(than 4147hift11;148rimple-math">z ~ 2.2(3)e(than 4149hift11;150rimple-math">z ~ 2.2(3)e(than 4151hift11;152)<7999-15/aa27999-15-eq109.png">(3)e(than 4153hift11;154). T Th1/aa/aa15/aerrasta1hanhavur catain -15/aa27999-15-eq109.png">W mrptionlate th Hz0ption trough larger. EXTERe detected "l>Mre detected l>Mre detected l155.). The three 1 p.

Ie sys/aaifuapsqua 26 . Mre detected l>Mre detected l156.). The three 1 p.

T7/spysormn . Accmlsd by Mre detected l>Mre detected l157.). The three 1 p.

T Thuslyal-to-n clasrmed tved by Mre detected l>Mre detected l158.). The three 1 p.

Angul201segh-eq95. ThS-15/aa5/al. lMre detect/aa279T4on of Adivs. We reln /aa27999-15/aa27999-15.html#R33">Hewett & Wild T4an cla4eq">(3)Dof Ap>Fn> 0)tved by cenrylworougict a mnrylp>sts.roughs/div>s/div>re deteroughsh2s. We resec /aa/aa279S29on of 6paSugict a mnrylp>sts31/aa,t01;580 quasars wit/sp ourseLs and quluman> tr 8201een re tre sys SDSSl#APP2">B<1contr79Sol/2gntary een re sLG) aShencan4 . Tirr9-15reipes de identeiscmed o17log&sme;. Th9-15reipes de se k-eq. M7999identeiscmed o t/L/aml#uncha="/d95. Th>worse k-eqs. Nep>B. Ttaa27a few2gntary een re s satamet15/aaflag for abs en/a>.. , rmemath"a99-159-179an> rrse k-eqt, we aleipes de no2>. Thrs9oricyts="simplsaaflag for absHirmcytidenteisten/a>. stisT016p1;580 quasars witstrmeeg-1for_gntary een re s ta/9Shenevolttic

BAGII,caurt the ull_1contr79Qa>. enougict a mnllp>stisT0n>afsrs15p>st . Accmlsdaetll_ht8054841n/a>.cles/ (black I/st017/0). T Th1, r805L infooset contaiu (20a have thwshth">&>/aa279F9on of Adivs. We reln ="middleC =ale="thumbnhav"= 1: Hewett & Wild F9Fig t9eq">(3)Dof Ap>Reas six dis4 qbuter. The contaius1).wheriform = 8bqu10r 8stdr.ol">(3="2Cs.org/agictt.php?pdf_id=9&DOI=10.1051/0004-6361">He5mp; W"1een re="DEXTER">OpBOts="siDEXTER of A/tdls/trlas/te thls/div>re deteroughsp>Inrion flagoth ann>afsrs15ougict a mnrylp>st17/01ent. .B<1,017/ph. T osetiform = mematng buttic5MJD = 55hifts p103 ,5/aMJD = 55hifts p177 ,5/aw-uasnotuh"-ng butti&smen> linull_1contr79T0n>asecon 5ougict a mnrylp>st . Accmlsd291t contaium oset eas six dis4 qbuter. oviaShenfhl_ht cles/ ( hae /st017/0). T Th1, r805fooset contaiu (20notugh&tm805> enofisci_htaa5/aii>:for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; He52017/<7999 (20notua have thwshth">&>, 20n clas aT Th1n> 0)tved bys27>worougict a mnllp>sts /sp 20havap> km s-1 (Col. #62 in Table F;ginly, clase9ougict a mnrylp>stshuion pr DAccml,t Th1, r805L infoe AGNsea have thw20o>lass=oscop ai t tht2017/p-mathul20, sys/aaaretiform = een reod oug per9-15l#APP2">B(3)b>s/F) to es(i>: distribu69on of Aaa27999-15/aa27999-15.html#R33">Hewett & Wild 2010; He4icle;F8">/aa27999-61on of Aaa27999-15/aa27999-15.html#R33">Hewett & Wild 2010; He4icle)2017/01/ogorm = ou799/ prbe observa27asngh&tm805> enouge ksx 01usinb traa2laxy targets and are now part of the supplementary list (see Sect. 31/aarbecaut the ullirun claxiscmed o oug per9-15reipes de.eroughsh2s. We resec /aa/aa279S30on of 7. Coan4.. B<1contrn> ao unnreaistraipecye. ,ee atri/01call8s used he twhiftt;<, . Accmlsd297hifts p301t contai, 184hifts p101nof). atri thesroughs. We reormalized to Me area 15e reduc20W01ent. . Th> ao ur805Ltaroncipah ont;t.aginysi tre sys s, 20log&these noLpan>. . Accmlsdaboutt80%ch AI /a>.:for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; . to recla s="simo un-w fllengsim/aochf 29s="siGALEX,llMA>B,rUKI-15,oWISE,lOg butmed ot 8Bnry etc Oscillnter. Slass=oscop aiScontr (e2">B011/aa27999-15/aa27999-15.html#R33">Hewett & Wild 2010; Dawsoes/aa/full_h61/aa2g"1boutt tlf)a milld o /ewt contaium8ll8batng butticii>:for the SDSS-DR3 (magenta histogram; He52017/2017/keepf 29s="siull_growsim/at the ween the-/a>.Bwher ly een reods th /a>.z ~ 2.2M,s u804rea 2aa27999 ough AI wherro>). The. T Th1srs15olass=oscop ai15 hista, wS-15/IV/e2">B ="left /div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN6on of Aough trough p.

T Thuoftwar re sur teh"a99-_SDSS g to /spyalled idlolas2d20Ixstaa5/ase k-eqtsars5_7_0r 8, rtakan>aro8Hewett & Wild 2010; s/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN7on of Aough2trough p.

Qa>.B_TARGET1.roughs/div>s/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN8on of Aough3trough p.

Qa>.B_TARGET1 ,5/a>B_TARGET0 == 0.roughs/div>s/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN9on of Aough4trough p.

Qa>.B_TARGET0 -math">km s-1 (out o0.roughs/div>s/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN10on of Aough5trough p.

/aa27999-15/aa27999-15.html#R33">Hewett & Wild 2010; .(3))sbistogon>molehul20 ISM9asar 7999-whe twI eas sixIn>asolelysbistogon>. ThSDSSl#APP2">B<1,um.roughs/div>s/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN11on of Aough6trough p.

T Thn8< 0lizsar1/aa2dnn2 ryriorption tra1nple-math">z ~ 2.2ng s alb>/spaFs thcalb>QSOz ~ 2.2ng s alb>1/aa279,ibu> enog butticf/aa2dnn2 ryra5/aple-math">z ~ 2.2QSO enmodelten/a>.s/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN12on of Aough7trough p.

S ofudoeets anhttp://www.ipac.yaltech."a9/2m/p>/15 hist99-llsky/doc/n oloug/15 hist99-llsky/doc/n olougs/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN13on of Aough8trough p.

te detected oeets anhttp://wise2.ipac.yaltech."a9/doc>/15 hist9-llsky/"1een re="_blank")http://wise2.ipac.yaltech."a9/doc>/15 hist9-llsky/ of re detects/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN14on of Aough9trough p.

te detected oeets anhttp://wise2.ipac.yaltech."a9/doc>/15 hist9-llwise/"1een re="_blank")http://wise2.ipac.yaltech."a9/doc>/15 hist9-llwise/ of re detects/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN15on of Aough 0trough p.

te detected oeets anhttp://wise2.ipac.yaltech."a9/doc>/15 hist9-llsky/n ooug/sec1_4b/15 hist9-llsky/n ooug/sec1_4bs/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN16on of Aough trough p.

te detected oeets anhttp://wise2.ipac.yaltech."a9/doc>/15 hist9-llsky/n ooug/%20sec2_2a/15 hist9-llsky/n ooug/ sec2_2as/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN17on of Aough12trough p.

te detected oeets anhttp://xmmssc-www.seen.le.ac.uk/Cpan>. ue/xcat_public_3XMM-DR4. ue/xcat_public_3XMM-DR4s/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN18on of Aough13trough p.

te detected oeets anhttp://www.sdss.org/dr12/algor th s/boss-dr12-/a>.. "1een re="_blank")www.sdss.org/dr12/algor th s/boss-dr12-/a>.. of re detects/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN19on of Aough14trough p.

S ofi>:for thhttp://www.sdss3.org/dr8/algor th s//a>). TheB7php#nmgy"1een re="_blank")https://www.sdss3.org/dr8/algor th s//a>). TheB7php#nmgy of A/ughs/div>s/div>r/div>sdiv>r<">/aa279FN20on of Aough15trough p.

S ofi>:for thhttp://www.ipac.yaltech."a9/2m/p>/15 hist99-llsky/doc/%20n oloug/15 hist99-llsky/doc/ n olougs/div>re de., rataz-3.5: Diggf 29i7 termsmologyra5/agntary evoluter. s="siR8">201,fER">Ope casar ">><20T0n>aworks ta/bpan>carrsteneuhtmlank tgopGII, up quam805ull_A*MIDEXreroorm (ANR-11-IDEX-0/01-02)999-

bquspans used Invfflusse a m sdhift17;Avenirhiftt;Bnr absp,017/m,//anag/p>bquspanF) NaflaginI 2 lo R5c9-uc9- 9-; 16784thI.P.-mlank tS. Twain, D. Hoff, D. DoAceial. lBr M;)A. J. RiLhh&ds oea8awork. Fun to ta8ent.

bquspanAlf haeP.-SloM;)Fqun a50 <,p2799P5/aa2ipaOpo tInflutued otent reNaflaginuSci
)Fqun a50 <,pl. uRUS Degh&tr abspanEnergy1Ofiscta, wSci. T Th9-15l#AP-meb 45 eibui>:for thhttp://www.sdss3.org/"1een re="_blank")http://www.sdss3.org/icle209-15l#AP-sar1anag/p>bquspanAstr.phys anduResearchfC otquai99-s8 Berk5 hyeNaflaginuLaboory, Max PlanckeInflutueTh1n>nAstr.phys as, Max PlanckeInflutueTh1n>nExtrmeedditarqinuPhys as, New Mexico StatedUnise k-ry,2New YorksUnise k-ry,2Ohio StatedUnise k-ry,2Pennsylvania StatedUnise k-ry,2Unise k-ryrre Pquasmouth,2Proncete cUnise k-ry,2sys Spanish P5/aa2ipaOpe cGroupenUnise k-ryrre TokyoenUnise k-ryrre Utah,2Va- ia,2Los AngTtaa,pl. uRJet2Propulk-eqtLaboory/Calian> iaeInflutueThre T5c9nology,pl. uNEOWISE,l matriesha eroorm re sys Jet2Propulk-eqtLaboory/Calian> iaeInflutueThre T5c9nology.lWISEal. uNEOWISEsLG) 99-

bquspanNaflaginuAeragiuedciu timSpaa> Admf istrmed o17losarrhsearchfe surrhsqua 2t Us/soFaciforyr up quasarby ull_Ofiscta, wSci re sys US Degh&tr abspanEnergy19- Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R1on of Adelm[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/524984">[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR1onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R2on of Ah<,pC.eP.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0/49/rt3/2/21">[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR2onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R3on of Ah<,pC.eP.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0/49/r11/2/17on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR3onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R4on of Aihara,2H.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0/49/193/2/29on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR4onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R5on of Al/m,/S.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0/49/219/1/12on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR5onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R6on of Al/m,/S.,:for thhttp://arxiv.org/afE/1607.03155"1een re="_blank")arXiv:1607.03155 of ]re detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR6onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R7on of AlbLG)ti, F. D.,lh teh,pJ., Gutiérrez,pC.eM.,les/aa/full5,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv1406on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR7onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R8on of Allen,pJ. T.,lHewet5,pP.pC.,lMaddox, N.,lRiLhh&ds, G. T.,l& Belokurov, V/full1,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.ull0.17489.xon[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR8onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R9on of A-[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.ull2.22066.xon[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR9onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R10on of A-[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stu523on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR10onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R11on of Beckfu,pR.2H.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/176166on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR11onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R12on of Boltoe,)A. S.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/144/5/144on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR12onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R13on of Bovy,pJ., Hennawi,pJ. F., Hogg, D. W.,les/aa/full1,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/729/2/141">[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR13onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R14on of Bovy,pJ., Myisa,)A. D., Hennawi,pJ. F., es/aa/full_,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/749/1/41">[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR14onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R15on of Boyle,pB. J_,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR15onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R16on of Busca, N. G.,lDelubac, T.,lRiLh,pJ., es/aa/full3,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt13/04 2010724-12/a010724-12[CrassRe1] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt13/04 2010724-12/a010724-12[EDPwScis] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR16onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R17on of Craom,/S. M.,lSmith,2R. J_,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.ul04.07619.xon[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR17onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R18on of Cu4 q,2R. M.,lSkrutskie, M.)F., v-maDyk, S.,. : II/246re detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR18onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R19on of Dawsoe, K. S.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/145/1/10on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR19onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R20on of Dawsoe, K. S.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.3847/0004-6256/151/2/44on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR20onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R21on of Delubac, T.,lBiuedsto,nJ. E.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt15/02/a013969-14/a013969-14[CrassRe1] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt15/02/a013969-14/a013969-14[EDPwScis] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR21onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R22on of Diamond-Stanat,)A. M.,lFae, X.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/699/1/782on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR22onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R23on of Eftekharzadeh, S.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv1763on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR23onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R24on of Eisenstein, D. J_,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/142/3/72on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR24onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R25on of Elvis,pM.,lLockmae, F. J_,<& F">[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/192105on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR25onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R26on of Fae, X.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/324111">[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR26onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R27on of Font-Ribera,)A.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/rt14/05/027on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR27onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R28on of Fukugito,nM.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/117915on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR28onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R29on of Gibsoe,)R.2R.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/692/1/758on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR29onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R30on of Gunn,nJ. E.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/300645on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR30onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R31on of Gunn,nJ. E.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/5t0975on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR31onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R32on of Hall,pP.pB.,lAn[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/340546on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR32onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R33on of Hewet5,pP.pC.,l& Wild, V/full0,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR33onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R34on of Hewet5,pP.pC.,lFoltz,pC.eB.,l& Chaffee, F. H_h1995,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/117380on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR34onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R35on of Hogg, D. W.,lFsakbeinfu,pD.eP.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/323103on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR35onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R36on of Ivezić, Ž.,_Luptoe,)R.2H.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1002/asna.ul0410285on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR36onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R37on of Kaisfu,pN_,Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR37onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R38on of Kaisfu,pN_,Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR38onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R39on of Kirkpatrick, J_hA.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/125on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR39onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R40on of Krawczyk, C.eM.,lRiLhh&ds, G. T.,lMehto,nS. S.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0/49/rt6/1/4on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR40onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R41on of LaM">[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/144on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR41onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R42on of Law, N.eM.,lKulkarni,/S. R.,lDekany,)R.2G.,les/aa/ful09, PASP, 121, 1395re detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://ui.ads,fE.harvar ."a9/#,fE/rt09PASP..121.1395L/,fEaram ">[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/648598on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR42onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R43on of Law),)A.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.ul07.12040.xon[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttp://www.ams.org/mathscinet- reitem?mr=2384976on[MathSciNet] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR43onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R44on of Luptoe,)R.,lGunn,nJ. E.,,)ASPoCsaf. Ser.,<238,<269re detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR44onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R45on of Luptoe,)R. H.,lGunn,nJ. E.,<& Szalay,)A. S.h1999,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/301004on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR45onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R46on of Mainzfu,pA.,lBiufu,pJ., Grav, T.,les/aa/full1,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/731/1/53on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR46onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R47on of Martin, D. C.,lFaes <,pJ.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/426387on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR47onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R48on of McDonald,eP.,<& Eisenstein, D. J_ful07,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.76.063009on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR48onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R49on of Merloni,/A.,lDwelly, T.,lSalvate,pM.,les/aa/full5,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv1095on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR49onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R50on of Morgaes <,pE., Gree<,pP.)J_,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/806/2/244on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR50onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R51on of Myisa,)A. D., Palanque-Delabrouille,pN_,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0/49/r21/2/27on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR51onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R52on of Ofek, E.pO.,lLahfu,pR., Suraa>,)J_,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/666978on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR52onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R53on of Ok>,)J_eB.,l& Gunn,nJ. E.h1983,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/160817on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR53onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R54on of Osmfu,pP. S.,<& Smith,2M.2G.h1980,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/190653on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR54onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R55on of Padmanabhae, N.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/524677on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttp://www.ams.org/mathscinet- reitem?mr=2375263on[MathSciNet] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR55onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R56on of Palanque-Delabrouille,pN_,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt11/069-116254-109-116254-10[CrassRe1] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt11/069-116254-109-116254-10[EDPwScis] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR56onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R57on of Palanque-Delabrouille,pN_,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt13/03/a010379-12/a010379-12[CrassRe1] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt13/03/a010379-12/a010379-12[EDPwScis] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR57onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R58on of Pâris,pI_,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt11/069-116233-109-116233-10[CrassRe1] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt11/069-116233-109-116233-10[EDPwScis] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR58onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R59on of Pâris,pI_,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt12/12/a010142-12/a010142-12[CrassRe1] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt12/12/a010142-12/a010142-12[EDPwScis] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR59onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R60on of Pâris,pI_,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt14/03/a012691-13/a012691-13[CrassRe1] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt14/03/a012691-13/a012691-13[EDPwScis] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR60onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R61on of Pateenakijwanath,eP.,arXiv:1410<7394 of ]re detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR61onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R62on of Preisa,)C.eM.,lRiLhh&ds, G. T.,lMyisa,)A. D., es/aa/full5,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/95on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR62onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R63on of Pifu,pJ.pR., Munn,nJ. A.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/346138on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR63onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R64on of Rau,)A.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/605911">[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR64onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R65on of Reid,2B.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stv2382on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR65onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R66on of RiLhh&ds, G. T.,lNiLhol, R. C.,lGray,)A. G.,les/aa/ful04,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/425356on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR66onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R67on of RiLhh&ds, G. T.,lSarauss, M.)A.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/503559on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR67onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R68on of RiLhh&ds, G. T.,lMyisa,)A. D., Gray,)A. G.,les/aa/ful09,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0/49/180/1/67on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR68onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R69on of Roig,2B.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/781/2/72on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR69onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R70on of Ross, N.eP.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0067-0/49/199/1/3on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR70onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R71on of Ross, N.eP.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/773/1/14on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR71onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R72on of Schlafly, E. F.,l& Fsakbeinfu,pD.eP.full1,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/737/2/103on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR72onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R73on of Schlegel, D. J_,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/305772on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR73onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R74on of Schmidt,)K.2B.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-637X/714/2/1194on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR74onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R75on of Schmidt,)M.)1963,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1038/1971040a0on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR75onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R76on of Schmidt,)M.,l& Gree<,pR. F.)1983,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/161048on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR76onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R77on of Schneidfu,pD.eP.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/518474on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR77onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R78on of Schneidfu,pD.eP.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/139/6/2360on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR78onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R79on of She<,pY.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.3847/0004-637X/831/1/7on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR79onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R80on of Skrutskie,pM. F.,lCutri,pR. M.,lSaiening,pR., /full_hrti6,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/498708on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR80onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R81on of Slosau,pA.,lIršič, V.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/rt13/04/026on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR81onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R82on of Smee,/S. A.,lGunn,nJ. E.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/146/2/32on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR82onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R83on of Smith,2J. A.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/339311">[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR83onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R84on of Spergel, D. N.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/377226on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR84onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R85on of Seenk,)A. A.,lGammie,pC. F.,lWilsoe,)R. W.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/191645on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR85onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R86on of Storrie-Lombar i, L_pJ_,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/177676on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR86onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R87on of Stoughtoe,)C.,lLuptoe,)R. H.,lBernar i, M.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/324741">[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR87onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R88on of Trump,pJ.pR., Hall,pP.pB.,lReiLhh&d, T.pA.,les/aa/ful06,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/503834on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR88onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R89on of Tuckfu,pD.eL.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1002/asna.rt0610655on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR89onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R90on of Voges, W.,lAschenbath,eB.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR90onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R91on of Voges, W.,lAschenbath,eB.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR91onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R92on of Watsoe,)M. G.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt09/019-110534-089-110534-08[CrassRe1] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt09/019-110534-089-110534-08[EDPwScis] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR92onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R93on of Wells,pD.eC.,lGreise<,pE. W.,l& Hartee,)R. H.)1981,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR93onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R94on of Weymane,)R. J_,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/170020on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR94onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R95on of White,pM.,lMyisa,)A. D., Ross, N.eP.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.rtl_.21251.xon[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR95onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R96on of Wright,pE. L.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/140/6/1868on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR96onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R97on of Yèche,pC.,lPreitjean,eP.,[NASA ADS] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt10/159-113508-09/-113508-09[CrassRe1] of re detecttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://www.aiAda.org/a/aa27999-15,fE/rt10/159-113508-09/-113508-09[EDPwScis] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR97onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttttttt l>Mre detected lcted oe/aa279R98on of Yonk,)D. G.,[NASA ADS] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttdetecte detected lcted oeeen re="asak_edps":for thhttps://doi.org/10.1086/301570on[CrassRe1] of re detectttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttre detecttttttttttple-math">Z3988"1eitl279"Mre detected le detect detecttttttttttp widerre detected lctedre detected le detecte detected lcted oefor th#InR98onre detected le detecte de(Ia/ seatext)re detected le detectMre detectedtttttt ctedre deteseconr oe/aa279appon of Appendix A: List ofeeen re selection flagsinse ">ligneonr oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159T5ple-math">bold">TablepA.1p wider of

Detailed result ofevisual inspection ofeDR12 quasareeen res for eacheeen re selection bit.

edttttttseconr oe/aa279appon of Appendix B: Description ofe seasupisaet ofeDR12Qinse ">ligneonr oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159T6ple-math">bold">TablepB.1p wider of

Description ofe seafilee sat containse seasupisaet from whath we disivee seaDR12Q catalog.

edttttttseconr oe/aa279appon of Appendix C: Additional tableinse ">ligneonr oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159T7ple-math">bold">TablepC.1p wider of

aDR12Q catalog format. edttttttseconr oe/aa279tabson of All Tablesinse ">ligneonr oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159T1ple-math">bold">Tablep1p wider of

Number ofeobjects identified asasuth bye seapipeasae with any ZWARNING value (second column) and with ZWARNING = 0 (third column), and after seavisual inspection (fourth column).in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">ligneonr oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159T2ple-math">bold">Tablep2p wider of

Visual inspection th"><_pisaoe (first column) and z_conf_pisaoe (first row) values provided ine seasupisaet fileedescribed ineAppendix B of .in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">ligneonr oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159T3ple-math">bold">Tablep3p wider of

Format ofe seabinary FITSafilee sat containse“trough-by-trough” information for BAL quasars.in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">ligneonr oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159T4ple-math">bold">Tablep4p wider of

Format ofe seabinary FITSafiles containing tseatwoasupplementary lists.in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">ligneonr oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159T5ple-math">bold">TablepA.1p wider of

Detailed result ofevisual inspection ofeDR12 quasareeen res for eacheeen re selection bit.in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">ligneonr oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159T6ple-math">bold">TablepB.1p wider of

Description ofe seafilee sat containse seasupisaet from whath we disivee seaDR12Q catalog. in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">ligneonr oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159T7ple-math">bold">TablepC.1p wider of

aDR12Q catalog format.in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of h2ath">seconr oe/aa279figson of All Figuresinse ">pimg ale="thumbnail" srcth/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15-fig1_small.jpgon of img-tx ">r oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159F1ple-math">bold">Fig.p1p wider of

Distribution one seasky ofe seaSDSS-DR12/BOSS spectroscopy ineJrti0 equatorial coordinates (expressed inedecimaledegrees). td tolwide="2">s.org/applet.php?pdf_id=1&DOI=10.1051/0004-6361/rt1527999"eeen re="DEXTER">Open with DEXTER of td tolwide="2"ath">in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">pimg ale="thumbnail" srcth/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15-fig2_small.jpgon of img-tx ">r oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159F2ple-math">bold">Fig.p2p wider of

Cumulativeenumber ofequasars asaa function ofeobservation date during tseawholeaSDSS-III/BOSS survey. A total ofe297 301equasars wasaspectroscopically confirmed. Tsea“flat portions” in tsis figure)correspond to/summer shutdowns. td tolwide="2">s.org/applet.php?pdf_id=2&DOI=10.1051/0004-6361/rt1527999"eeen re="DEXTER">Open with DEXTER of td tolwide="2"ath">in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">pimg ale="thumbnail" srcth/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15-fig3_small.jpgon of img-tx ">r oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159F3ple-math">bold">Fig.p3p wider of

Examples ofespectra identified asaQSO_? (top left oi>),aQSO_Z? (middle left oi>),aQSO_BAL_Z? (bottom left oi>),aSeen_? (top right oi>),a? (middle right oi>),aand Bad (bottom right oi>). Tseafluxes are)shown in black and associated errors in green. All seaspectra are)smoo sed over 10 pixels. td tolwide="2">s.org/applet.php?pdf_id=3&DOI=10.1051/0004-6361/rt1527999"eeen re="DEXTER">Open with DEXTER of td tolwide="2"ath">in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">pimg ale="thumbnail" srcth/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15-fig4_small.jpgon of img-tx ">r oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159F4ple-math">bold">Fig.p4p wider of

Left oi> ideel oi>: redshift distribution ofe seaSDSS-DR12 (thick black sistogram),aSDSS-DR10 (orange sistogram) and SDSS-DR7 (blue sistogram) quasars over searedshift range 0–6. Right ideel oi>: redshift distribution ofe seaSDSS-DR12 quasars for seaCORE sample (dark blue sistogram), BONUS sample (light blue sistogram), ancillary programs (red sistogram) and SEQUELS (orange sistogram). Tseabin size ofeall seasistograms istple-math">simple-math">Δz oi> = 0.05p wider. Tseatwoapeaks attple-math">simple-math">z oi> ~ 0.8p wider and ple-math">simple-math">z oi> ~ 1.6p wider seen ine searedshift distribution ofe seaSDSS-DR10 and SDSS-DR12 quasaresamples (left ideel oi>) and ine seadistribution ofe seaCORE and BONUS samples (right ideel oi>) are)due to/known degeneraci td tolwide="2">s.org/applet.php?pdf_id=4&DOI=10.1051/0004-6361/rt1527999"eeen re="DEXTER">Open with DEXTER of td tolwide="2"ath">in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">pimg ale="thumbnail" srcth/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15-fig5_small.jpgon of img-tx ">r oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159F5ple-math">bold">Fig.p5p wider of

Left oi> ideel oi>: distribution ofeple-math">simple-math">r oi>< wider PSF magnitude (corrected for Galacaa2 extinction) for seaBOSS main sample (selected bye seaalgorithms described ine simple-math">Δr oi> = 0.02p wider. Right ideel oi>: absolute magnitude-redshift plane for SDSS-DR12 CORE+BONUS quasars (black contours),aquasars observed asapart ofeSDSS-DR12 ancillary programs (red points),aSEQUELS quasars (orange points) and SDSS-DR7 quasars (blue contours). Tseaabsolute magnitudes assumeeple-math">simple-math">H oi>0p wub> = 70 km s-1p wup> Mpc-1p wup>p wider and seaple-math">simple-math">K oi>< wider-correction istgiven bye oe/aa279InR67on of simple-math">K oi>(z oi> = 2) = 0p wider. Contours are)drawn at constant point density. td tolwide="2">s.org/applet.php?pdf_id=5&DOI=10.1051/0004-6361/rt1527999"eeen re="DEXTER">Open with DEXTER of td tolwide="2"ath">in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">pimg ale="thumbnail" srcth/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15-fig6_small.jpgon of img-tx ">r oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159F6ple-math">bold">Fig.p6p wider of

Spectrum ofe seahighest redshift (ple-math">simple-math">z oi> = 6.440p wider) quasar observed byeBOSS istdisplayed ine seatop left ideel oi>. Tsistquasar wasadiscovered byesimple-math">z oi> ~ 1.2p wider (top right ideel oi>) and ple-math">simple-math">z oi> ~ 1.6p wider (middle left ideel oi>). TypicalaBOSS quasars are)shown at tforeadifferent redshifts: ple-math">simple-math">z oi> ~ 2.2p wider (middle right ideel oi>), ple-math">simple-math">z oi> ~ 2.7p wider (bottom left ideel oi>) and ple-math">simple-math">z oi> ~ 3.5p wider (bottom right ideel oi>). All seaspectra are)smoo sed over 5 pixels. td tolwide="2">s.org/applet.php?pdf_id=6&DOI=10.1051/0004-6361/rt1527999"eeen re="DEXTER">Open with DEXTER of td tolwide="2"ath">in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">pimg ale="thumbnail" srcth/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15-fig7_small.jpgon of img-tx ">r oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159F7ple-math">bold">Fig.p7p wider of

Distribution of velocityadifferena>s between seavisual inspection redshift (Z_VI, black sistogram),aMg ple-math">smallcaps">ii< wider-based redshift (Z_MGII, red sistogram),aSDSSapipeasae redshift (poefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15Boltonsmallcaps">iv< wider-based redshift (Z_CIV, green sistogram), C ple-math">smallcaps">iii]< wider-based redshift (Z_CIII, cyan sistogram) and seaPCA redshift (Z_PCA). Tseabin size ofeall seasistograms istple-math">simple-math">Δv oi> = 50 km s-1p wup>p wider. td tolwide="2">s.org/applet.php?pdf_id=7&DOI=10.1051/0004-6361/rt1527999"eeen re="DEXTER">Open with DEXTER of td tolwide="2"ath">in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">pimg ale="thumbnail" srcth/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15-fig8_small.jpgon of img-tx ">r oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159F8ple-math">bold">Fig.p8p wider of

Left oi> ideel oi>: distribution ofeAI for seaSDSS-DR3 (magentaasistogram; e oe/aa279InR88on of poefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15simple-math">log AI > 2.5p wider. Right ideel oi>: distribution ofeBI from seaDR12Q catalog (black sistogram), from seaSDSS-DR6 (red sistogram;e Gibson td tolwide="2">s.org/applet.php?pdf_id=8&DOI=10.1051/0004-6361/rt1527999"eeen re="DEXTER">Open with DEXTER of td tolwide="2"ath">in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of divath">inse ">pimg ale="thumbnail" srcth/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159-127999-15-fig9_small.jpgon of img-tx ">r oefor th/a/aa27999-15full_a hr/rt17/019-127999-159F9ple-math">bold">Fig.p9p wider of

Redshift distribution ofequasars serendipitously identified quasars (black sistogram) and identified on bad plates (red sistogram). Tseanumber ofeobjects for seablack sistogram istdivided by 10 for th"rity. td tolwide="2">s.org/applet.php?pdf_id=9&DOI=10.1051/0004-6361/rt1527999"eeen re="DEXTER">Open with DEXTER of td tolwide="2"ath">in-tx ">Ia/ seatext of /div> /div> ttttr navath">toolbar">r toolbar-item"aid="metrics-siq">Current usage metricsr toolbar-item"aid="infoonAbouful/aa279 metricsre de r toolbar-item"aid="return">Return to/l/aa279r divath">ideel"edata-for="metrics-siq"> /div> divath">ideel"edata-for="metrics-alm"> /div> divath">ideel"edata-for="infoon rr

Current usage metrics)show cumulativeecount ofeA/aa279 Views (full-textul/aa279 views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to/ seaavailablepdata) and AfEaram s Views onaVision4Press platform.Data)correspond to/usage one seaplateform after rt15. Tseacurrent usage metrics)istavailablep48-96 hours after onasae publicatioe and is updated daily oneweek days.msg msg-infoon ple-math">ico ico-infoonp widerr Initial download ofe seametrics)mayeeekeaa while. /div> /div>