Model-independent and model-based local lensing properties of CL0024+1654 from multiply imaged galaxies
Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik,
2 Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany
3 Expertisecentrum voor Digitale Media, Universiteit Hasselt, Wetenschapspark 2, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
4 Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
Accepted: 11 December 2017
Context. Local gravitational lensing properties, such as convergence and shear, determined at the positions of multiply imaged background objects, yield valuable information on the smaller-scale lensing matter distribution in the central part of galaxy clusters. Highly distorted multiple images with resolved brightness features like the ones observed in CL0024 allow us to study these local lensing properties and to tighten the constraints on the properties of dark matter on sub-cluster scale.
Aim. We investigate to what precision local magnification ratios, , ratios of convergences, f, and reduced shears, g = (g1, g2), can be determined independently of a lens model for the five resolved multiple images of the source at zs = 1.675 in CL0024. We also determine if a comparison to the respective results obtained by the parametric modelling tool Lenstool and by the non-parametric modelling tool Grale can detect biases in the models. For these lens models, we analyse the influence of the number and location of the constraints from multiple images on the lens properties at the positions of the five multiple images of the source at zs = 1.675.
Methods. Our model-independent approach uses a linear mapping between the five resolved multiple images to determine the magnification ratios, ratios of convergences, and reduced shears at their positions. With constraints from up to six multiple image systems, we generate Lenstool and Grale models using the same image positions, cosmological parameters, and number of generated convergence and shear maps to determine the local values of , f, and g at the same positions across all methods.
Results. All approaches show strong agreement on the local values of , f, and g. We find that Lenstool obtains the tightest confidence bounds even for convergences around one using constraints from six multiple-image systems, while the best Grale model is generated only using constraints from all multiple images with resolved brightness features and adding limited small-scale mass corrections. Yet, confidence bounds as large as the values themselves can occur for convergences close to one in all approaches.
Conclusions. Our results agree with previous findings, support the light-traces-mass assumption, and the merger hypothesis for CL0024. Comparing the different approaches can detect model biases. The model-independent approach determines the local lens properties to a comparable precision in less than one second.
Key words: dark matter / gravitational lensing: strong / methods: data analysis / methods: analytical / galaxies: clusters: individual: CL0024+1654 / galaxies: luminosity function, mass function
© ESO 2018