Multi-technique investigation of the binary fraction of A-F type candidate hybrid variable stars discovered by Kepler⋆,⋆⋆
1 Koninklijke Sterrenwacht van België, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussel, Belgium
2 Konkoly Observatory, MTA CSFK, Konkoly Thege M. u. 15-17, 1121 Budapest, Hungary
3 Instituut voor Sterrenkunde (IvS), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
4 Institut d’Astronomie & Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
5 Thüringer Landessternwarte, 07778 Tautenburg, Germany
6 Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Physics Faculty, University of Tabriz, 51664 Tabriz, Iran
Received: 24 February 2017
Accepted: 1 September 2017
Context. Hundreds of candidate hybrid pulsators of intermediate type A–F were revealed by recent space missions. Hybrid pulsators allow us to study the full stellar interiors, where both low-order p- and high-order g-modes are simultaneously excited. The true hybrid stars must be identified since other processes, related to stellar multiplicity or rotation, might explain the presence of (some) low frequencies observed in their periodograms.
Aims. We measured the radial velocities of 50 candidate δ Scuti −γ Doradus hybrid stars from the Kepler mission with the Hermes and ace spectrographs over a time span of months to years. We aim to derive the fraction of binary and multiple systems and to provide an independent and homogeneous determination of the atmospheric properties and v sin i for all targets. The long(er)-term objective is to identify the (probable) physical cause of the low frequencies.
Methods. We computed one-dimensional cross-correlation functions (CCFs) in order to find the best set of parameters in terms of the number of components, spectral type(s), and v sin i for each target. Radial velocities were measured using spectrum synthesis and a two-dimensional cross-correlation technique in the case of double- and triple-lined systems. Fundamental parameters were determined by fitting (composite) synthetic spectra to the normalised median spectra corrected for the appropriate Doppler shifts.
Results. We report on the analysis of 478 high-resolution Hermes and 41 ace spectra of A/F-type candidate hybrid pulsators from the Kepler field. We determined their radial velocities, projected rotational velocities, and atmospheric properties and classified our targets based on the shape of the CCFs and the temporal behaviour of the radial velocities. We derived orbital solutions for seven new systems. Three preliminary long-period orbital solutions are confirmed by a photometric time-delay analysis. Finally, we determined a global multiplicity fraction of 27% in our sample of candidate hybrid stars.
Key words: techniques: spectroscopic / techniques: photometric / binaries: spectroscopic / stars: oscillations / stars: variables: δScuti / stars: rotation
Based on observations obtained with the Hermes spectrograph, which is supported by the Research Foundation − Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany.
Tables 2 and 3 are only, and Tables C.1–C.3 are also, available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A17
© ESO, 2018