Jet-torus connection in radio galaxies
Relativistic hydrodynamics and synthetic emission
1 Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
2 Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn, Germany
3 Departament d’Astronomia i Astrofísica, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, València, Spain
4 Observatori Astronòmic, Parc Científic, Universitat de València, C/ Catedràtic José Beltrán 2, 46980 Paterna, València, Spain
5 Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany
Received: 26 April 2017
Accepted: 28 August 2017
Context. High resolution very long baseline interferometry observations of active galactic nuclei have revealed asymmetric structures in the jets of radio galaxies. These asymmetric structures may be due to internal asymmetries in the jets or they may be induced by the different conditions in the surrounding ambient medium, including the obscuring torus, or a combination of the two.
Aims. In this paper we investigate the influence of the ambient medium, including the obscuring torus, on the observed properties of jets from radio galaxies.
Methods. We performed special-relativistic hydrodynamic (SRHD) simulations of over-pressured and pressure-matched jets using the special-relativistic hydrodynamics code Ratpenat, which is based on a second-order accurate finite-volume method and an approximate Riemann solver. Using a newly developed radiative transfer code to compute the electromagnetic radiation, we modelled several jets embedded in various ambient medium and torus configurations and subsequently computed the non-thermal emission produced by the jet and thermal absorption from the torus. To better compare the emission simulations with observations we produced synthetic radio maps, taking into account the properties of the observatory.
Results. The detailed analysis of our simulations shows that the observed properties such as core shift could be used to distinguish between over-pressured and pressure matched jets. In addition to the properties of the jets, insights into the extent and density of the obscuring torus can be obtained from analyses of the single-dish spectrum and spectral index maps.
Key words: galaxies: active / galaxies: jets / radiation mechanisms: non-thermal / radio continuum: galaxies
© ESO, 2018