Three-dimensional mapping of the local interstellar medium with composite data⋆
1 GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Université Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France
2 ACRI-ST, Route du Pin Montard, 06904 Sofia-Antipolis, France
Received: 21 March 2017
Accepted: 9 June 2017
Context. Three-dimensional maps of the Galactic interstellar medium are general astrophysical tools. Reddening maps may be based on the inversion of color excess measurements for individual target stars or on statistical methods using stellar surveys. Three-dimensional maps based on diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) have also been produced. All methods benefit from the advent of massive surveys and may benefit from Gaia data.
Aims. All of the various methods and databases have their own advantages and limitations. Here we present a first attempt to combine different datasets and methods to improve the local maps.
Methods. We first updated our previous local dust maps based on a regularized Bayesian inversion of individual color excess data by replacing Hipparcos or photometric distances with Gaia Data Release 1 values when available. Secondly, we complemented this database with a series of ≃5000 color excess values estimated from the strength of the λ15273 DIB toward stars possessing a Gaia parallax. The DIB strengths were extracted from SDSS/APOGEE spectra. Third, we computed a low-resolution map based on a grid of Pan-STARRS reddening measurements by means of a new hierarchical technique and used this map as the prior distribution during the inversion of the two other datasets.
Results. The use of Gaia parallaxes introduces significant changes in some areas and globally increases the compactness of the structures. Additional DIB-based data make it possible to assign distances to clouds located behind closer opaque structures and do not introduce contradictory information for the close structures. A more realistic prior distribution instead of a plane-parallel homogeneous distribution helps better define the structures. We validated the results through comparisons with other maps and with soft X-ray data.
Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that the combination of various tracers is a potential tool for more accurate maps. An online tool makes it possible to retrieve maps and reddening estimations.
Key words: dust, extinction / ISM: lines and bands / ISM: structure / ISM: supernova remnants / solar neighborhood / local insterstellar matter
Our online tool is available at http://stilism.obspm.fr
© ESO, 2017