The complexity of Orion: an ALMA view
1 LERMA & UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, 75014 Paris, France
2 Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, 38000 Grenoble, France
3 INAF–Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Florence, Italy
4 JPL, Pasadena, California, USA
5 Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI tion" co USA
nent/author/?"Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA
nent/7 Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, f Massachusetts, USA
Recenivd: 19 January 2017
nepan class="bold">Acceptvd: 22f My 2017
Context. We wish to improve our understanding of the Orion central star formation region (Orion-KL) and disentangle its complexity.
Aims. We collected data with ALMA during cycle 2 in 16 GHz of total bandwidth spread between 215.1 and 252.0 GHz with a typical sensitivity of 5 mJy/beam (2.3 mJy/beam from 233.4 to 234.4 GHz) and a typical beam size of 1.̋nepan class="simple-math">7 × 1.̋0 (average position angle of 89nepan class="simple-math">°). We produced a continuum map and studied the emission lines in nine remarkable infrared spots in the region including the hot core and the compact ridge, plus the recently discovered ethylene glycol peak.
Methods. We present the data, and report the detection of several species not previously seen in Orion, including n- and i-propyl cyanide (Cnepan class="simple-math">nenb>3Hnepan class="simple-math">nenb>7CN), and the tentative detection of a number of other species including glycolaldehyde (CHnepan class="simple-math">nenb>2(OH)CHO). The first detections of gGgnepan class="simple-math">′ ethylene glycol (gGgnepan class="simple-math">′ (CHnepan class="simple-math">nenb>2OH)nepan class="simple-math">nenb>2) and of acetic acid (CHnepan class="simple-math">nenb>3COOH) in Orion are presented in a companion paper. We also report the possible detection of several vibrationally excited states of cyanoacetylene (HCnepan class="simple-math">nenb>3N), and of its nepan class="simple-math">nenp>13C isotopologues. We were not able to detect the nepan class="simple-math">nenp>16Onepan class="simple-math">nenp>18O line predicted by our detection of Onepan class="simple-math">nenb>2 with Herschel, due to blending with a nearby line of vibrationally excited ethyl cyanide. We do not confirm the tentative detection of hexatriynyl (Cnepan class="simple-math">nenb>6H) and cyanohexatriyne (HCnepan class="simple-math">nenb>7N) reported previously, or of hydrogen peroxide (Hnepan class="simple-math">nenb>2Onepan class="simple-math">nenb>2) emission.
Results. We report a complex velocity structure only partially revealed before. Components as extreme as nepan class="simple-math">−7 and +19 km snepan class="simple-math">nenp>-1 are detected inside the hot region. Thanks to different opacities of various velocity components, in some cases we can position these components along the line of sight. We propose that the systematically redshifted and blueshifted wings of several species observed in the northern part of the region are linked to the explosion that occurred nepan class="simple-math">~500 yr ago. The compact ridge, noticeably farther south displays extremely narrow lines (nepan class="simple-math">~1 km snepan class="simple-math">nenp>-1) revealing a quiescent region that has not been affected by this explosion. This probably indicates that the compact ridge is either over 10 000 au in front of or behind the rest of the region.
Conclusions. Many lines remain unidentified, and only a detailed modeling of all known species, including vibrational states of isotopologues combined with the detailed spatial analysis offered by ALMA enriched with zero-spacing data, will allow new species to be detected.
This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00533.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ.
The reduced ALMA data cubes as listed in Table 1 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A32
© ESO, 2017