Formation of S0 galaxies through mergers
Evolution in the Tully-Fisher relation since z ~ 1
1 Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. 106, Ensenada BC 22800, Mexico
2 Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/ vía Láctea, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
3 Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
4 Departamento de Astrofísica y CC. de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
5 Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl, 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Received: 29 April 2016
Accepted: 18 May 2017
Context. Lenticular (S0) galaxies are known to derive from spiral galaxies. The fact that S0s nearly obey the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) at z ~ 0 (as spirals have done in the last ~9 Gyr) is considered an argument against their major-merger origin because equal mergers of two disc galaxies produce remnants that are outliers of the TFR.
Aims. We explore whether a scenario that combines an origin by mergers at z ~ 1.8 − 1.5 with a subsequent passive evolution of the resulting S0 remnants since z ~ 0.8–1 is compatible with observational data of S0s in the TFR both at z ~ 0.8 and z ~ 0.
Methods. We studied a set of major and minor merger experiments from the GalMer database that generate massive S0 remnants that are dynamically relaxed and have realistic properties. We analysed the location of these remnants in the photometric and stellar TFRs assuming that they correspond to z ~ 0.8 galaxies. We then estimated their evolution in these planes over the last ~7 Gyr considering that they have evolved passively in isolation. The results were compared with data of real S0s and spirals at different redshifts. We also tested how the use of Vcirc or Vrot,max affects the results.
Results. Just after ~1–2 Gyr of coalescence, major mergers generate S0 remnants that are outliers of the local photometric and stellar TFRs (as already stated in previous studies), in good agreement with observations at z ~ 0.8. After ~4–7 Gyr of passive evolution in isolation, the S0 remnants move towards the local TFR, although the initial scatter among them persists. This scatter is sensitive to the indicator used for the rotation velocity: Vcirc values yield a lower scatter than when Vrot,max values are considered instead. In the planes involving Vrot,max, a clear segregation of the S0 remnants in terms of the spin-orbit coupling of the model is observed, in which the remnants of retrograde encounters overlap with local S0s hosting counter-rotating discs. The location of the S0 remnants at z ~ 0 agrees well with the observed distribution of local S0 galaxies in the σ0–MK, Vcirc–σ0, and Vrot,max–σ0 planes.
Conclusions. Massive S0 galaxies may have been formed through major mergers that occurred at high redshift and have later evolved towards the local TFR through passive evolution in relative isolation, a mechanism that would also contribute to the scatter observed in this relation.
Key words: galaxies: formation / galaxies: evolution / galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD / galaxies: interactions / galaxies: structure / galaxies: kinematics and dynamics
© ESO, 2017