Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching, Germany
Received: 18 November 2016
Accepted: 21 February 2017
Aims. The hierarchical model of structure formation is a key prediction of the Λ cold dark matter model, which can be tested by studying the large-scale environment and the substructure content of massive galaxy clusters. We present here a detailed analysis of the clusters RXC J0225.9-4154, RXC J0528.9-3927, and RXC J2308.3-0211, as part of a sample of massive X-ray luminous clusters located at intermediate redshifts.
Methods. We used a multiwavelength analysis, combining WFI photometric observations, VIMOS spectroscopy, and the X-ray surface brightness maps. We investigated the optical morphology of the clusters, we looked for significant counterparts in the residual X-ray emission, and we ran several statistical tests to assess their dynamical state. We correlated the results to define various substructure features, to study their properties, and to quantify their influence on simple dynamical mass estimators.
Results. RXC J0225.9-4154 has a bi-modal core, and two massive galaxy groups are located in its immediate surroundings; they are aligned in an elongated structure that is also detected in X-rays at the 1σ level. RXC J0528.9-3927 is located in a poor environment; an X-ray centroid shift and the presence of two central BCGs provide mild evidence for a recent and active dynamical history. RXC J2308.3-0211 has complex central dynamics, and it is found at the core of a superstes-cluster.
Conclusions. The complexity of the cluster’s central dynamics reflects the richness of its large-scale environment: RXC J0225 and RXC J2308 present a mass fraction in substructures larger than the typical 5−15%, whereas the isolated cluster RXC J0528 does not have any major substructures within its virial radius. The largest substructures are found in the cluster outskirts. The optical morphology of the clusters correlates with the orientation of their BCG, and with the position of the main axes of accretion.
Key words: galaxies: clusters: individual: RXC J0225.9-4154 / galaxies: clusters: individual: RXC J0528.9-3927 / galaxies: clusters: individual: RXC J2308.3-0211 / X-rays: galaxies: clusters
Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A145
© ESO, 2017